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© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: research article 25 May 2020

Submitted as: research article | 25 May 2020

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This preprint is currently under review for the journal ACP.

Investigation of the wet removal rate of black carbon in East Asia: validation of a below- and in-cloud wet removal scheme in FLEXPART v10.4

Yongjoo Choi1, Yugo Kanaya1, Masayuki Takigawa1, Chunmao Zhu1, Seung-Myung Park2, Atsushi Matsuki3, Yasuhiro Sadanaga4, Sang-Woo Kim5, Xiaole Pan6, and Ignacio Pisso7 Yongjoo Choi et al.
  • 1Research Institute for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Yokohama, 2360001, Japan
  • 2Division of Climate & Air Quality Research, National Institute of Environmental Research, Kyungseo-dong, Seo-Gu, Incheon 404170, Korea
  • 3Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 9201192, Japan
  • 4Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 5998531, Japan
  • 5School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
  • 6Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
  • 7NILU – Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Kjeller 2027, Norway

Abstract. Understanding the global distribution of atmospheric black carbon (BC) is essential to unveil its climatic effect. However, there are still large uncertainties regarding the simulation of BC transport due to inadequate information about the removal process. We accessed the wet removal rate of BC in East Asia based on long-term measurements over the 2010–2016 period at three representative background sites (Baengnyeong and Gosan in South Korea and Noto in Japan). The average wet removal rate, represented by transport efficiency (TE), i.e. the fraction of undeposited BC particles during transport, was estimated as 0.73 in East Asia from 2010 to 2016. According to accumulated precipitation along trajectory, TE was lower in East and North China, where the industrial sector (thin-coated) is dominant; in contrast, that in South Korea and Japan showed higher values due to the transport sector (thick-coated), with emissions mainly from diesel vehicles. By the same token, TE in winter and summer showed the highest and lowest values, respectively, depending on the dominant emission sectors, such as house heating (thick-coated) and industry. The average half-life and e-folding lifetime of BC were 2.8 and 7.1 days, respectively, similar to previous studies, but those values differed according to the geographical location and meteorological conditions of each site. Next, by comparing TE from the FLEXible PARTicle (FLEXPART) Lagrangian transport model (version 10.4), we diagnosed the scavenging coefficients (s−1) of the below- and in-cloud scavenging scheme implemented in FLEXPART. The overall median TE from FLEXPART (0.91) was overestimated compared to the measured value, implying underestimation of wet scavenging coefficients in the model simulation. The median of the below-cloud scavenging coefficient showed a lower value than that calculated from FLEXPART, by a factor of 1.7. On the other hand, the overall median of the FLEXPART in-cloud scavenging coefficients was highly underestimated by 1 order of magnitude compared to the measured value. From the analysis of artificial neural networks, the convective available potential energy, which is well known as an indicator of vertical instability, should be considered in the in-cloud scavenging process to improve the representative regional difference in BC wet scavenging over East Asia. For the first time, this study suggested an effective and straightforward evaluation method for wet scavenging schemes (both below- and in-cloud) by introducing TE along with excluding effects from the inaccurate emission inventories.

Yongjoo Choi et al.

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Yongjoo Choi et al.

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