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https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2020-321
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2020-321
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: research article 19 Jun 2020

Submitted as: research article | 19 Jun 2020

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This preprint is currently under review for the journal ACP.

Pollution trace gas distributions and their transport in the Asian monsoon upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere during the StratoClim campaign 2017

Sören Johansson1, Michael Höpfner1, Oliver Kirner2, Ingo Wohltmann3, Silvia Bucci4, Bernard Legras4, Felix Friedl-Vallon1, Norbert Glatthor1, Erik Kretschmer1, Jörn Ungermann5, and Gerald Wetzel1 Sören Johansson et al.
  • 1Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany
  • 2Steinbuch Centre for Computing, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany
  • 3Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam, Germany
  • 4Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, UMR8539, IPSL, CNRS/PSL-ENS/Sorbonne Université/École polytechnique, Paris, France
  • 5Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Stratosphere (IEK-7), Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich, Germany

Abstract. We present the first high resolution measurements of pollutant trace gases in the Asian Summer Monsoon Upper Troposphere and Lowermost Stratosphere (UTLS) from the Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA) during the StratoClim (Stratospheric and upper tropospheric processes for better climate predictions) campaign with base in Kathamandu, Nepal, 2017. Measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), acetylene (C2H2), and formic acid (HCOOH) show strong local enhancements up to altitudes of 16 km. More than 500 pptv of PAN, more than 200 pptv of C2H2, and more than 200 pptv of HCOOH are observed. An observed local maximum of PAN and C2H2 at altitudes up to 18 km, reaching to the lowermost stratosphere, instead has been transported for a longer time. A local minimum of HCOOH is correlated with a maximum of ammonia (NH3), which suggests different wash out efficiencies of these species in the same air masses. To study the influence of convective transport to the measured pollution trace gas occurrences in detail, a trajectory analysis of the models ATLAS and TRACZILLA examined backward trajectories, starting at geolocations of GLORIA measurements with enhanced pollution trace gases. Both trajectory schemes implemented advanced techniques for detection of convective events. These convective events along trajectories leading to GLORIA measurements with enhanced pollutants are located close to regions, where satellite measurements by OMI show enhanced tropospheric columns of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the days prior to the observation. As an application of these highly resolved measurements, a comparison to the atmospheric models CAMS and EMAC is performed. It is demonstrated that these simulation results are able to reproduce large scale structures of the pollution trace gas distributions if the convective influence on the measured air masses is captured by the meteorological fields used by these simulations. Both models do not have sufficient horizontal resolution to capture all the convective events that are necessary to reproduce the fine structures measured by GLORIA. To investigate the influence of the strength of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emissions in the EMAC model, sensitivity studies with artificially enhanced NMVOC emissions are performed. With these enhanced emissions, the simulation results succeed to reproduce the measured peak values of the pollutants, but do not improve the comparison of spatial distributions.

Sören Johansson et al.

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Data sets

GLORIA level 2 data on HALO-DB S. Johansson et al. https://doi.org/10.17616/R39Q0T

OMI/Aura NO2 Cloud-Screened Total and Tropospheric Column L3 Global Gridded 0.25 degree x 0.25 degree V3 N. A. Krotkov, L. N. Lamsal, S. V. Marchenko, E. A. Celarier, E. J.Bucsela, W. H. Swartz, J. Joiner and the OMI core team (2019) https://doi.org/10.5067/Aura/OMI/DATA3007

Sören Johansson et al.

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Short summary
We present the first high resolution measurements of pollutant trace gases (PAN, C2H2 & HCOOH) in the Asian Monsoon UTLS from the airborne limb imager GLORIA during StratoClim 2017. Enhancements are observed up to 16 km altitude, PAN and C2H2 even up to 18 km. Two atmospheric models CAMS and EMAC reproduce the pollutant's large scale structures but not finer structures. Convection is investigated using backward trajectories of the models ATLAS and TRACZILLA with advanced detection of convection.
We present the first high resolution measurements of pollutant trace gases (PAN, C2H2 & HCOOH)...
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