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© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: research article 09 Jan 2020

Submitted as: research article | 09 Jan 2020

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This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

Simultaneous Measurement of Urban and Rural Single Particles in Beijing, Part I: Chemical Composition and Mixing State

Yang Chen1, Jing Cai2, Zhichao Wang1, Chao Peng1, Xiaojiang Yao1, Mi Tian1, Yiqun Han2, Guangming Shi1,3, Zongbo Shi4,5, Yue Liu2, Xi Yang2, Mei Zheng2, Tong Zhu2, Kebin He6, Qiang Zhang7, and Fumo Yang3,1 Yang Chen et al.
  • 1Center for the Atmospheric Environment Research, Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 400714, China
  • 2SKL-ESPC and BIC-ESAT, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • 3College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China
  • 4School of Geography Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
  • 5Institute of Surface-Earth System Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China
  • 6School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
  • 7Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China

Abstract. Two single particle aerosol mass spectrometers (SPAMS) were deployed simultaneously at an urban and a rural site in Beijing during an intensive field campaign from 1st to 29th Nov 2016 to investigate the source and process of airborne particles in Beijing. In the first part of this research, we report the single-particle chemical composition, mixing state, and evolution at both sites. 96 % and 98 % of collected particles were carbonaceous at the urban and rural sites, respectively. Five particle categories, including elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), internal-mixed EC and OC (ECOC), potassium-rich (K-rich), and Metals were observed at both sites. The categories were partitioned into particle types depending on different atmospheric processing stages. Seventeen particle types were shared at both sites. In the urban area, nitrate-containing particle types, such as EC-Nit and ECOC-Nit, were enriched, especially at night; sulfate-containing particles were transported when wind speed was high; ECOC-Nit-Sul were mostly local-aged. In sum, these processed particles took up to 85.3 % in the urban areas. In the rural area, regional particles were abundant, but freshly emitted ECOC and OC had distinct patterns that were pronounced at cooking and heating time. Biomass burning, traffic, and coal burning were major sources of PM2.5 in both rural and urban areas. Besides, the particles from the steel industry located in the south were also identified. In summary, the chemical composition of urban and rural particle types was similar in Beijing; the urban particles were influenced significantly by rural processing and transport. The work is useful to understand the evolution of urban and rural particles in Beijing during winter.

Yang Chen et al.
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Yang Chen et al.
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Short summary
The impacts of heating activities in both urban and rural sites on the single-particle chemical composition were analyzed. Patterns of particle transport, accumulation, and evolution in both urban and rural areas are investigated. The two sites shared seventeen common particle types in different stages of atmospheric processing.
The impacts of heating activities in both urban and rural sites on the single-particle chemical...