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© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: research article 14 Oct 2019

Submitted as: research article | 14 Oct 2019

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This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

Synoptic-scale controls of fog and low clouds in the Namib Desert

Hendrik Andersen1,2, Jan Cermak1,2, Julia Fuchs1,2, Peter Knippertz1, Marco Gaetani3,4, Julian Quinting1, Sebastian Sippel5,6, and Roland Vogt7 Hendrik Andersen et al.
  • 1Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe, Germany
  • 2Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Karlsruhe, Germany
  • 3LISA/IPSL, CNRS, Université Paris Est Créteil, Université Paris, Créteil, France
  • 4LATMOS/IPSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Université Paris-Saclay, Paris, France
  • 5ETH Zurich, Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 6Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Ås, Norway
  • 7University of Basel, Department of Environmental Sciences, Basel, Switzerland

Abstract. Fog is a defining characteristic of the climate of the Namib Desert and its water and nutrient input are important for local ecosystems. In part due to sparse observation data, the local mechanisms that lead to fog occurrence in the Namib are not yet fully understood, and to date, potential synoptic-scale controls have not been investigated. In this study, a recently established 14-year data set of satellite observations of fog and low clouds in the central Namib is analyzed in conjunction with reanalysis data to identify typical synoptic-scale conditions associated with fog and low-cloud occurrence in the central Namib during two seasons that characterize seasonal fog variability. It is found that during both seasons, mean sea level pressure and geopotential height at 500 hPa differ significantly between fog/low-cloud and clear days, with patterns indicating seasonally different synoptic-scale disturbances on fog and low-cloud days: cut-off lows during September, October, and November, and breaking Rossby waves during April, May, and June. These regularly occurring disturbances increase the probability of fog and low-cloud occurrence in the central Namib in two main ways: 1) an anomalously dry free troposphere in the coastal region of the Namib leads to stronger longwave cooling, especially over the ocean, facilitating low-cloud formation, and 2) local wind systems are modulated, leading to an onshore anomaly of marine boundary-layer air masses. This is consistent with air mass backtrajectories and a principal component analysis of spatial wind patterns that point to advected marine boundary- layer air masses on fog and low-cloud days, whereas subsiding continental air masses dominate on clear days. Large-scale free-tropospheric moisture transport into southern Africa seems to be a key factor modulating the onshore advection of marine boundary-layer air masses during April, May, and June, as the associated increase in greenhouse gas warming and thus surface heating is observed to contribute to a continental heat low anomaly. A statistical model is trained to discriminate between fog/low-cloud and clear days based on large-scale mean sea level pressure fields. The model accurately predicts fog and low-cloud days, illustrating the importance of large-scale pressure modulation and advective processes. It can be concluded that Namib-region fog is predominantly of advective nature, but also facilitated by increased radiative cooling. Seasonally different manifestations of synoptic-scale disturbances act to modify its day-to-day variability and the balance of mechanisms leading to its formation. The results are the basis for a new conceptual model on the synoptic-scale mechanisms that control fog and low clouds in the Namib Desert, and will guide future studies of coastal fog regimes.

Hendrik Andersen et al.
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Publications Copernicus
Short summary
Fog and low clouds (FLCs) are an essential, but poorly understood element of Namib-region climate. Here, a satellite-based data set of central-Namib FLCs, reanalysis data, and backtrajectories are used to systematically analyze conditions when FLCs occur. Synoptic-scale mechanisms are identified that influence the formation of FLCs and the onshore advection of marine boundary layer air masses. The findings lead to a new conceptual model of mechanisms that drive FLCs in the Namib Desert.
Fog and low clouds (FLCs) are an essential, but poorly understood element of Namib-region...