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Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-891
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-891
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: research article 13 Jan 2020

Submitted as: research article | 13 Jan 2020

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This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

Importance of Ammonia Gas-Particle Conversion Ratio in Haze Formation in the Rural Agricultural Environment

Jian Xu1, Jia Chen1, Na Zhao1, Guochen Wang1, Guangyuan Yu1, Hao Li1, Juntao Huo3, Yanfen Lin3, Qingyan Fu3, Hongyu Guo4, Congrui Deng1,2, Shan-Hu Lee5, Jianmin Chen1, and Kan Huang1,2,6 Jian Xu et al.
  • 1Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention (LAP3), Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, People's Republic of China
  • 2Institute of Eco-Chongming (IEC), 20 Cuiniao Road, Chenjiazhen, Shanghai 202162, People's Republic of China
  • 3Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center, Shanghai 200235, People's Republic of China
  • 4Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences and Department of Chemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, United States
  • 5Department of Atmospheric & Earth Science, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama 35758, United States
  • 6Institute of Atmospheric Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, People's Republic of China

Abstract. Ammonia in the atmosphere is essential for the formation of fine particles that impact air quality and climate. Despite extensive prior research to disentangle the relationship between ammonia and haze pollution, the role of ammonia in haze formation in the high ammonia emitted regions is still not well understood. Aiming to better understand secondary inorganic aerosol (SNA) formation mechanisms under high ammonia conditions, one-year hourly measurement of water-soluble inorganic species (gas and particle) was conducted in a rural supersite in Shanghai. Exceedingly high levels of agricultural ammonia, constantly around 30 μg m−3, were observed. We find that ammonia gas-particle conversion ratio (ACR), as opposed to ammonia concentrations, plays a critical role in SNA formation during the haze period. By assessing the effects of various parameters, including temperature (T), aerosol water content (AWC), aerosol pH, and activity coefficient, it seems that AWC plays predominant regulating roles for ACR. We propose a self-amplifying feedback mechanism associated with ACR for the formation of SNA, which is consistent with diurnal variations of ACR, AWC, and SNA. Our results imply that reduction of ammonia emissions alone may not reduce SNA effectively at least in rural agricultural sites in China.

Jian Xu et al.
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Short summary
This study provided evidence that ammonia gas-particle conversion ratio, as opposed to ammonia concentration, plays a critical role in the haze formation. And reduction of ammonia emissions alone may not reduce air pollution effectively at least in rural agricultural sites in China.
This study provided evidence that ammonia gas-particle conversion ratio, as opposed to ammonia...
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