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Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-890
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-890
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: research article 15 Oct 2019

Submitted as: research article | 15 Oct 2019

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

Ice nucleating ability of particulate emissions from solid biomass-fired cookstoves: an experimental study

Kimmo Korhonen1, Thomas Bjerring Kristensen2, John Falk2, Robert Lindgren3, Christina Andersen4, Ricardo Luis Carvalho3,a, Vilhelm Berg-Malmborg4, Axel Eriksson4, Christoffer Boman3, Joakim Pagels4, Birgitta Svenningsson2, Mika Komppula5, Kari E. J. Lehtinen1, and Annele Virtanen1 Kimmo Korhonen et al.
  • 1University of Eastern Finland, Dept. Applied Physics, P.O. box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland
  • 2Lund University, Department of Physics, SE-22100, Lund, Sweden
  • 3Umeå University, Thermochemical Energy Conversion Laboratory, SE-90187, Umeå, Sweden
  • 4Lund University, Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Box 118, Lund SE-22100, Sweden
  • 5Finnish Meteorological Institute, Atmospheric Research Centre of Eastern Finland, P.O. box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland
  • anow at: Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, University of Aveiro, Department of Environment and Planning, PT-3810-193, Aveiro, Portugal

Abstract. Ice nucleating abilities of particulate emissions from solid-fuel burning cookstoves were studied using a portable ice nuclei counter SPIN (SPectrometer for Ice Nuclei) as part of the SUSTAINE (Salutary Umeå STudy of Aerosols IN Biomass Cookstove Emissions) laboratory experiment campaign. The emissions were generated from two traditional cookstove types commonly used for household cooking in sub-Saharan Africa, and two advanced gasifier stoves which are under research to promote sustainable development alternatives. The studied solid fuels included biomass from two different African tree species, Swedish softwood and agricultural residue products relevant to the region. Measurements were performed with a modified version of the standard water boiling test on (1) polydisperse samples from flue gas during burning and (2) size-selected accumulation mode (250–500 nm) soot particles from a 15-m3 aerosol-storage chamber, from which the particles were introduced to water-supersaturated freezing conditions in the SPIN.

We observed that accumulation mode soot particles generally produced an ice-activated fraction of 10−3 in temperatures that were 1–1.5 °C higher than what was required for homogeneous freezing at fixed RHwater = 115 %. Five special experiments where the combustion performance of one cookstove was intentionally modified were also performed, which led to a significant increase in the ice nucleating ability of the particles in two experiments, resulting in 10−3 ice activation at up to 5.9 °C higher temperatures than homogeneous freezing. Moreover, six different physico-chemical properties of the emission particles were investigated but we did not find a clear correlation between them and increasing ice-nucleating ability. We conclude that in general, the studied freshly emitted combustion aerosols only facilitate immersion freezing at temperatures moderately above where homogeneous freezing occurs.

Kimmo Korhonen et al.
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Short summary
Ice nucleating abilities of particulate emissions from solid-fuel burning cookstoves were studied using a portable ice nuclei counter in an extensive laboratory experiment campaign. We found that even small changes in combustion conditions may affect the ice nucleating ability of the emissions significantly. Also six different physico-chemical properties of the emissions were studied but no clear correlation to their ice nucleating ability was found.
Ice nucleating abilities of particulate emissions from solid-fuel burning cookstoves were...
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