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Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-81
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-81
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 01 Mar 2019

Research article | 01 Mar 2019

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

The impact of increases in South Asian anthropogenic emissions of SO2 on sulfate loading in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere during the monsoon season and the associated radiative impact

Suvarna Fadnavis1, Gayatry Kalita1, Matthew Rowlinson2, Alexandru Rap2, Jui-Lin Frank Li3, Blaž Gasparini4, Anton Laakso5, and Rolf Müller6 Suvarna Fadnavis et al.
  • 1Indian Institute of Tropical meteorology, Pune, India
  • 2School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
  • 3Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, USA
  • 4Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, USA
  • 5Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland
  • 6Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, IEK7, Jülich, Germany

Abstract. The Asian summer monsoon plays a key role in changing aerosol amounts in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) via convective transport. Here, we use the ECHAM6-HAMMOZ global chemistry–climate model to investigate the transport of anthropogenic South Asian sulfate aerosols and their impact on the UTLS. Our experiments (ten-member ensemble) with SO2 emissions enhanced by 48 % over South Asia, based on an Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite observed rising trend of ~ 4.8 % per year during 2006–2017, simulate how the Asian sulfate aerosols are convectively transported to the UTLS. The tropospheric increase in SO2 leads to an increase in UTLS sulfate aerosol loading of 10–33 % over South Asia and 5–10 % over the high latitudes in the northern hemisphere. The enhanced sulfate aerosols lead to warming (0.1 ± 0.06 to 0.6 ± 0.25 K) in the lowermost stratosphere and cooling (−0.1 ± 0.06 to −0.8 ± 0.41 K) in the troposphere in the Northern Hemisphere. The estimated mean direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) induced by the increase in South Asian aerosol emissions is −0.2 to −1.5 W m−2 over north India during the monsoon season. The decrease in vertical velocity and the associated enhanced stability of the upper troposphere in response to increased SO2 emissions will likely have a weakening effect on the South Asian monsoon.

Suvarna Fadnavis et al.
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Short summary
The multiple-satellite data and the global–chemistry–climate model experiments with SO2 emissions enhanced by 48 % over South Asia show sulfate aerosols increase loading of 10–33 % in the UTLS over South Asia. It leads to warming in the lowermost stratosphere and direct radiative forcing at the TOA ~ −0.2 to −1.5 W m−2 over north-India during the monsoon season. The decrease in vertical velocity and enhanced stability of the upper-troposphere may lead to a weakening of the South Asian monsoon.
The multiple-satellite data and the global–chemistry–climate model experiments with SO2...
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