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Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-728
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-728
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: research article 04 Sep 2019

Submitted as: research article | 04 Sep 2019

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This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

A transition in atmospheric emissions of particles and gases from on-road heavy-duty trucks

Liyuan Zhou1, Åsa M. Hallquist2, Mattias Hallquist3, Christian M. Salvador3, Samuel M. Gaita3, Åke Sjödin2, Martin Jerksjö2, Håkan Salberg2, Ingvar Wängberg2, Johan Mellqvist4, Qianyun Liu1, Berto P. Lee1, and Chak K. Chan1 Liyuan Zhou et al.
  • 1School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
  • 2IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden
  • 3Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
  • 4Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden

Abstract. The transition in extent and characteristics of atmospheric emissions caused by the modernisation of the heavy-duty on-road fleet were studied utilising roadside measurements. Emissions of particle number (PN), particle mass (PM), black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), particle size distributions and particle volatility were measured from 556 individual heavy-duty trucks (HDTs). Substantial reductions in PM, BC, NOx, CO and to a lesser extent PN were observed from Euro III to Euro VI HDTs by 99 %, 98 %, 93 % and 57 % for the average emissions factors of PM, BC, NOx, and CO respectively. Despite significant total reductions in NOx emissions, the fraction of NO2 in the NOx emissions increased continuously from Euro IV to Euro VI HDTs. Larger data scattering was evident for PN emissions in comparison to solid particle number (SPN) for Euro VI HDTs, indicating a highly variable fraction of volatile particle components. Particle size distributions of Euro III to EEV HDTs were bimodal, whereas those of Euro VI HDTs were nucleation mode dominated. High emitters disproportionately contributed to a large fraction of the total emissions with the highest-emitting 10 % of HDTs in each pollutant category being responsible for 65 % of total PM, 70 % of total PN and 44 % of total NOx emissions, respectively. Euro VI HDTs, which accounted for 53 % of total kilometres driven by Swedish HDTs, were estimated to only contribute to 2 %, 6 %, 12 % and 47 % of PM, BC, NOx, and PN emissions. A shift to a Euro VI HDTs dominant fleet would promote a transition of atmospheric emissions towards low PM, BC, NOx, and CO levels. Nonetheless, reducing PN, SPN, and NO2 emissions from Euro VI HDTs is still important to improve air quality in urban environments.

Liyuan Zhou et al.
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Short summary
This study reports the transition in the atmospheric emission of particles and gases from on-road heavy-duty trucks (HDTs) caused by the modernisation of the fleet. We measured particle number (PN), particle mass (PM), black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), particle size distributions and volatility in the plumes of 556 individual HDTs. Significant but different changes in emissions were evident for various pollutants with respect to emission standards.
This study reports the transition in the atmospheric emission of particles and gases from...
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