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Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-715
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-715
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: research article 13 Sep 2019

Submitted as: research article | 13 Sep 2019

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This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

Attributing land transport emissions to ozone and ozone precursors in Europe and Germany

Mariano Mertens1, Astrid Kerkweg2, Volker Grewe1,3, Patrick Jöckel1, and Robert Sausen1 Mariano Mertens et al.
  • 1Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany
  • 2Institut für Geowissenschaften und Meteorologie, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Germany
  • 3Delft University of Technology, Aerospace Engineering, Section Aircraft Noise and Climate Effects, Delft, the Netherlands

Abstract. Land transport is an important emission source of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds, which serves as precursors for tropospheric ozone. Besides the direct negative impact of nitrogen oxides, air quality is also affected by these enhanced ozone tropospheric ozone concentrations. As ozone is radiativly active, its increase contributes to climate change. Due to the strong non-linearity of the ozone chemistry, the contribution of land transport emissions to tropospheric ozone cannot be calculated or measured directly, instead atmospheric-chemistry models equipped with specific source apportionment methods (called tagging) are required. In this study we investigate the contributions of land transport emissions to ozone and ozone precursors using the MECO(n) model system, coupling a global and a regional chemistry climate model, which are equipped with a tagging diagnostic. For the first time the effects of long range transport and regional effects of regional emissions are investigated. This is only possible by applying a tagging method simultaneously and consistently on the global and regional scale. We performed two three-year simulations with different anthropogenic emission inventories for Europe by applying our global model with two regional refinements, i.e. a European nest (50 km resolution) in the global model and a German nest (12 km resolution) in the European nest. We find contributions of land transport emissions to reactive nitrogen (NOy) near ground-level in the range of 5 to 10 nmol mol−1, corresponding to 50 to 70 % of the ground level NOy values. The largest contributions are around Paris, Southern England, Moscow, the Po Valley, and Western Germany. Carbon monoxide contributions range from 30 nmol mol−1 to more than 75 nmol mol−1 near emission hot spots such as Paris or Moscow. The contribution of land transport emissions to ozone show a strong seasonal cycle which absolute contributions of 3 nmol mol−1 during winter and 5 to 10 nmol mol−1 during summer. This corresponds to relative contributions of 8 to 10 % during winter and up to 16 % during summer. Those largest values during summer are confined to the Po Valley, while the contribution in Western Europa ranges from 12 to 14 %. The ozone contributions are robust. Only during summer the ozone contributions are slightly influenced by the emission inventory, but these differences are smaller than the range of the seasonal cycle of the contribution. This cycle is caused by a complex interplay of seasonal cycles of other emissions (e.g. biogenic) and seasonal difference of the ozone regimes. This small difference of the ozone contributions due to the emission inventory is remarkable as the precursor concentrations (NOx and CO) are much more affected by the change. In addition, our results suggest that during events with large ozone values the contribution of land transport emissions and biogenic emissions increase strongly. Here, the contribution of land transport emission peak up to 28 %. Hence, land transport is an important contributor to events of large ozone values.

Mariano Mertens et al.
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Short summary
We investigate the contribution of land transport emissions to ozone and ozone precursors in Europe and Germany. Our results show that land transport emissions are one of the most important contributor to reactive nitrogen in Europe. For ozone the contribution are in the range of 8 % to 16 % strongly depending on the time of the year. The hotspots with the largest ozone concentrations are the Po Valley, while the largest concentration to reactive nitrogen are located mainly in Western Europe.
We investigate the contribution of land transport emissions to ozone and ozone precursors in...
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