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Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-688
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-688
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: research article 10 Sep 2019

Submitted as: research article | 10 Sep 2019

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This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

Condensation/immersion mode ice nucleating particles in a boreal environment

Mikhail Paramonov1,a, Saskia Drossaart van Dusseldorp1, Ellen Gute2, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt2, Paavo Heikkilä3, Jorma Keskinen3, Xuemeng Chen4,5, Krista Luoma4, Liine Heikkinen4, Liqing Hao6, Tuukka Petäjä4, and Zamin A. Kanji1 Mikhail Paramonov et al.
  • 1Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zürich, Switzerland
  • 2Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 3Aerosol Physics laboratory, Physics unit, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland
  • 4Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research/Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
  • 5Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia
  • 6Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
  • anow at: Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland

Abstract. Ice nucleating particle (INP) measurements were performed in the boreal environment of southern Finland at the Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations SMEAR II in the winter-spring of 2018. Measurements with the Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber (PINC) were conducted at 242 K and 105 % relative humidity with respect to water. The median INP number concentration [INP] during a six-week measurement period was found to be 13 L−1. [INP] spanned 3 orders of magnitude and showed a general increase from mid-February until early April. No persistent local or regional sources of INPs in the boreal environment of southern Finland could be identified. Rather, it is hypothesised that the INPs at SMEAR II are a result of dilution during long-range transport. Despite high variability, the measured [INP] values fall within the range expected for INP number concentrations measured elsewhere at similar thermodynamic conditions. [INP] did not correlate with any of the examined relevant parameters during the entire field campaign, indicating that no one single parameter can be used to predict the INP number concentration at the measurement location during the examined time period. The absence of correlation across the entire field campaign also suggests that a variety of particles are acting as INPs at different times, although it was indirectly determined that, on average, ambient INPs are most likely in the size range of 0.1–0.5 μm in diameter. On shorter time scales, several particle species correlated well with [INP] implying their potential role as INPs. Depending on the meteorological conditions, signatures of black carbon (BC), supermicron biological particles and sub-0.1 μm particles, most likely nanoscale biological fragments such as ice nucleating macromolecules (INMs), have been found in the INP signal. However, an increase in the concentration of any of these particle species may not necessarily lead to the increase in [INP], reasons for which remain unknown. Limitations of the instrumental setup and the necessity of the future field INP studies are addressed.

Mikhail Paramonov et al.
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Mikhail Paramonov et al.
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Latest update: 19 Nov 2019
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Short summary
Ice nucleating particle (INP) measurements were performed in the boreal environment of Southern Finland in the winter-spring of 2018. It was found that no one single parameter can be used to predict the INP number concentration at the measurement location during the examined time period. It was also not possible to identify physical and chemical properties of ambient INPs despite the complexity of instrumental setup. The paper, therefore, addresses the necessity for future INP measurements.
Ice nucleating particle (INP) measurements were performed in the boreal environment of Southern...
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