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© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: research article 02 Sep 2019

Submitted as: research article | 02 Sep 2019

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This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

Regional variability in black carbon and carbon monoxide ratio from long-term observations over East Asia: Assessment of representativeness for BC and CO emission inventories

Yongjoo Choi1, Yugo Kanaya1, Seung-Myung Park2, Atsushi Matsuki3, Yasuhiro Sadanaga4, Sang-Woo Kim5, Itsushi Uno6, Xiaole Pan7, Meehye Lee8, Hyunjae Kim2, and Dong Hee Jung2 Yongjoo Choi et al.
  • 1Research Institute for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Yokohama, 2360001, Japan
  • 2Division of Climate & Air Quality Research, National Institute of Environmental Research, Kyungseo-dong, Seo-Gu, Incheon 404170, Korea
  • 3Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 9201192, Japan
  • 4Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 5998531, Japan
  • 5School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
  • 6Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga Park 6-1, Fukuoka, 816-8580, Japan
  • 7Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
  • 8Departmentof Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea University, Seoul, Korea

Abstract. The BC/CO emission ratios were estimated and compiled from long-term, harmonized observations of the ΔBC/ΔCO ratios under conditions unaffected by wet deposition at four sites in East Asia, including two sites in Korea (Baengnyeong and Gosan) and two sites in Japan (Noto and Fukuoka). Extended spatio-temporal coverage enabled estimation of full seasonality and elucidation of the emission ratio in North Korea, for the first time. The estimated ratios were used to validate the Regional Emission inventory in Asia (REAS) version 2.1 based on six study domains (East China, North China, Northeast China, South Korea, North Korea, and Japan). We found that the ΔBC/ΔCO ratios from four sites converged into a narrow range (6.2–7.9 ng m−3 ppb−1), suggesting consistency in the results from independent observations and similarity in source profiles over the regions. The BC/CO ratios from the REAS emission inventory (7.7 ng m−3 ppb−1 for East China – 23.2 ng m−3 ppb−1 for South Korea) were overestimated by factors of 1.1 for East China to 3.0 for South Korea, whereas the ratio for North Korea (3.7 ng m−3 ppb−1 from REAS) was underestimated by a factor of 2.0, most likely due to inaccurate emissions from the road transportation sector. Seasonal variation in the BC/CO ratio from REAS was found to be the highest in winter (China and North Korea) or summer (South Korea and Japan), whereas the measured ΔBC/ΔCO ratio was highest in spring in all source regions, indicating the need for further characterization of seasonality when creating a bottom-up emission inventory. At levels of administrative districts, overestimation in Seoul, the southwest regions of South Korea, and Northeast China was noticeable, and underestimation was mainly observed in the western regions in North Korea, including Pyongyang. These diagnoses are useful for identifying the regions where revisions in the inventory are necessary, providing guidance for refinement of BC and CO emission rate estimates over East Asia.

Yongjoo Choi et al.
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Status: open (until 28 Oct 2019)
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Short summary
The relationship between black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO) can be differed by the different structure of fuel consumption. By investigating the representativeness of BC and CO emission inventory for real-world comparing with reliable observation, this study suggested that accurate CO emissions should be preferentially investigated to enhance the accuracy of BC emission rate over East Asia.
The relationship between black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO) can be differed by the...