Journal cover Journal topic
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Journal topic

Journal metrics

Journal metrics

  • IF value: 5.668 IF 5.668
  • IF 5-year value: 6.201 IF 5-year
    6.201
  • CiteScore value: 6.13 CiteScore
    6.13
  • SNIP value: 1.633 SNIP 1.633
  • IPP value: 5.91 IPP 5.91
  • SJR value: 2.938 SJR 2.938
  • Scimago H <br class='hide-on-tablet hide-on-mobile'>index value: 174 Scimago H
    index 174
  • h5-index value: 87 h5-index 87
Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-677
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-677
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: research article 12 Sep 2019

Submitted as: research article | 12 Sep 2019

Review status
A revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal ACP.

Carbon dioxide emissions in Northern China based on atmospheric observations from 2005 to 2009

Archana Dayalu1,a, J. William Munger2,3, Yuxuan Wang4,5, Steven C. Wofsy2,3, Yu Zhao6, Thomas Nehrkorn1, Chris Nielsen3, Michael B. McElroy3, and Rachel Chang7 Archana Dayalu et al.
  • 1Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Lexington, MA, USA
  • 2Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA
  • 3School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA
  • 4Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA
  • 5Department of Earth System Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
  • 6School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China
  • 7Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada
  • aformerly at: Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA

Abstract. China has pledged reduction of carbon dioxide emissions per unit GDP by 60–65 % relative to 2005 levels, and to peak carbon emissions overall by 2030. However, disagreement among available inventories makes it difficult for China to track progress toward these goals and evaluate the efficacy of control measures. In this study, we demonstrate an approach based on a long time series of surface CO2 observations to evaluate regional CO2 emissions rates in northern China estimated by three anthropogenic CO2 inventories – two of which are subsets from global inventories, and one of which is China-specific. Comparison of CO2 observations to CO2 predicted from accounting for global background concentration and atmospheric mixing of emissions suggests potential biases in the inventories. The period analyzed focuses on the key commitment period for the Paris accords (2005) and the Beijing Olympics (2008). Model-observation mismatch in concentration units is translated to mass units and is displayed against the original inventories in the measurement influence region, largely corresponding to northern China. Owing to limitations from having a single site, addressing the significant uncertainty stemming from transport error and error in spatial allocation of the emissions remains a challenge. Our analysis uses observations to support and justify increased use and development of China-specific inventories in tracking China's progress as a whole towards reducing emissions. Here we are restricted to a single measurement site; effectively evaluating and constraining inventories at relevant spatial scales requires multiple stations of high-temporal resolution observations. At this stage and with observational data limitations, we emphasize that this work is intended to be a comparison of a subset of anthropogenic CO2 emissions rates from inventories that were readily available at the time this research began. For this study's analysis time period, there was not enough spatially distinct observational data to conduct an optimization of the inventories. Rather, our analysis provides an important quantification of model-observation mismatch. In the northern China evaluation region, emission rates from the China-specific inventory produce the lowest model-observation mismatch at all timescales from daily to annual. Additionally, we note that averaged over the study time period, the unscaled China-specific inventory has substantially larger annual emissions for China as a whole (20 % higher) and the northern China evaluation region (30 %) than the unscaled global inventories. Our results lend support the rates and geographic distribution in the China-specific inventory. However, exploring this discrepancy for China as a whole requires a denser observational network in future efforts to measure and verify CO2 emissions for China both regionally and nationally. This study provides a baseline analysis for a small but import region within China, as well a guide for determining optimal locations for future ground-based measurement sites.

Archana Dayalu et al.

Interactive discussion

Status: final response (author comments only)
Status: final response (author comments only)
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
[Login for Authors/Editors] [Subscribe to comment alert] Printer-friendly Version - Printer-friendly version Supplement - Supplement

Archana Dayalu et al.

Data sets

Replication Data for: Carbon dioxide emissions in Northern China based on atmospheric observations from 2005 to 2009 A. Dayalu, J. W. Munger, Y. Wang, S. C. Wofsy, Y. Zhao, T. Nehrkorn, C. Nielsen, M. McElroy, and R. Y.-W. Chang https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/OJESO0

Model code and software

Replication Data for: Carbon dioxide emissions in Northern China based on atmospheric observations from 2005 to 2009 A. Dayalu, J. W. Munger, Y. Wang, S. C. Wofsy, Y. Zhao, T. Nehrkorn, C. Nielsen, M. McElroy, and R. Y.-W. Chang https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/OJESO0

Archana Dayalu et al.

Viewed

Total article views: 447 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)
HTML PDF XML Total Supplement BibTeX EndNote
352 90 5 447 13 4 9
  • HTML: 352
  • PDF: 90
  • XML: 5
  • Total: 447
  • Supplement: 13
  • BibTeX: 4
  • EndNote: 9
Views and downloads (calculated since 12 Sep 2019)
Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 12 Sep 2019)

Viewed (geographical distribution)

Total article views: 348 (including HTML, PDF, and XML) Thereof 344 with geography defined and 4 with unknown origin.
Country # Views %
  • 1
1
 
 
 
 

Cited

Saved

No saved metrics found.

Discussed

No discussed metrics found.
Latest update: 18 Feb 2020
Publications Copernicus
Download
Short summary
China has pledged reducing carbon dioxide emissions per unit GDP by 60–65 % relative to 2005 levels, and to peak carbon emissions overall by 2030. Disagreement among available inventories of Chinese emissions makes it difficult for China to track progress toward its goals and evaluate the efficacy of regional control measures. This study uses a unique set of historical atmospheric observations for the key period from 2005–2009 to independently evaluate three different CO2 emissions estimates.
China has pledged reducing carbon dioxide emissions per unit GDP by 60–65 % relative to 2005...
Citation