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© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: research article 08 Aug 2019

Submitted as: research article | 08 Aug 2019

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This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

MICS-Asia III: Overview of model inter-comparison and evaluation of acid deposition over Asia

Syuichi Itahashi1, Baozhu Ge2,3,4, Keiichi Sato5, Joshua S. Fu6, Xuemei Wang7, Kazuyo Yamaji8, Tatsuya Nagashima9, Jie Li2,3,4, Mizuo Kajino10,11, Hong Liao12,13, Meigen Zhang2,3,4, Zhe Wang14, Meng Li15, Junichi Kurokawa5, Gregory R. Carmichael16, and Zifa Wang2,3,4 Syuichi Itahashi et al.
  • 1Environmental Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Abiko, Chiba 270–1194, Japan
  • 2State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry (LAPC), Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100029, China
  • 3Collage of Earth Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • 4Center for Excellence in Urban Atmospheric Environment, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xiamen 361021, China
  • 5Asia Center for Air Pollution Research (ACAP), 1182 Sowa, Nishi-ku, Niigata, Niigata 950-2144, Japan
  • 6Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
  • 7Institute for Environment and Climate Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510275, China
  • 8Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University, Kobe, Hyogo 658-0022, Japan
  • 9National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan
  • 10Meteorological Research Institute (MRI), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0052, Japan
  • 11Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University ofTsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572, Japan
  • 12School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
  • 13International Joint Laboratory on Climate and Environmental Change, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
  • 14Research Institute for Applied Mechanics (RIAM), Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580, Japan
  • 15Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
  • 16Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA

Abstract. The Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) Phase III was conducted to promote understanding of regional air quality and climate change in Asia, which have received growing attention due to the huge amount of anthropogenic emissions worldwide. This study provides an overview of acid depositions. Specifically, dry and wet depositions of the following species were analyzed: S (sulfate aerosol, sulfur dioxide (SO2), and sulfuric acid (H2SO4)), N (nitrate aerosol, nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and nitric acid (HNO3)), and A (ammonium aerosol and ammonia (NH3)). The wet deposition simulated by a total of nine models was analyzed and evaluated using ground observation data from the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET). In this Phase III study, the number of observation sites was increased to 54 from 37 in the Phase II study, and Southeast Asian countries were newly added. Additionally, whereas the analysis period was limited to representative months of each season in MICS-Asia Phase II, this Phase III study analyzed the full year of 2010. The scope of this overview mainly focuses on the annual accumulated depositions. In general, models can capture the observed wet depositions over Asia but underestimate the wet deposition of S and A and show large differences in the wet deposition of N. Furthermore, the ratio of wet deposition to the total deposition (the sum of dry and wet deposition) was investigated in order to understand the role of important processes in the total deposition. The general dominance of wet deposition over Asia and attributions from dry deposition over land were consistently found in all models. Then, total deposition maps over 13 countries participating in EANET were produced, and the balance between deposition and anthropogenic emissions was calculated. Excesses of deposition, rather than of anthropogenic emissions, were found over Japan, North Asia, and Southeast Asia, indicating the possibility of long-range transport within and outside Asia, as well as other emission sources. To improve the ability of models to capture the observed wet deposition, two approaches were attempted, namely, ensemble and precipitation adjustment. The ensemble approach was effective at modulating the differences in performance among models, and the precipitation-adjusted approach demonstrated that the model performance for precipitation played a key role in better simulating wet deposition. Finally, the lessons learned from this Phase III study and future perspectives for Phase IV are summarized.

Syuichi Itahashi et al.
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Status: final response (author comments only)
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Syuichi Itahashi et al.
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Short summary
This study gives an overview of acid depositions from the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) Phase III. Wet deposition simulated by a total of nine models is evaluated with observation data from the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET). The total deposition maps comparing to emissions over Asia are presented. To seek a way to improve the model performance, ensemble approaches and the precipitation-adjusted method are discussed.
This study gives an overview of acid depositions from the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia...