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Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-590
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-590
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: research article 24 Sep 2019

Submitted as: research article | 24 Sep 2019

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This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

Flexpart v10.1 simulation of source contributions to Arctic black carbon

Chunmao Zhu1, Yugo Kanaya1,2, Masayuki Takigawa1,2, Kohei Ikeda3, Hiroshi Tanimoto3, Fumikazu Taketani1,2, Takuma Miyakawa1,2, Hideki Kobayashi1,2, and Ignacio Pisso4 Chunmao Zhu et al.
  • 1Research Institute for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine–Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Yokohama 2360001, Japan
  • 2Institute of Arctic Climate and Environmental Research, Japan Agency for Marine–Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama 2360001, Japan
  • 3National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba 305-8506, Japan
  • 4NILU – Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Kjeller 2027, Norway

Abstract. The Arctic environment is undergoing rapid changes such as faster warming than the global average and exceptional melting of glaciers in Greenland. Black carbon (BC) particles, which are a short-lived climate pollutant, are one cause of Arctic warming and glacier melting. However, the sources of BC particles are still uncertain. We simulated the potential emission sensitivity of atmospheric BC present over the Arctic (north of 66° N) using the Flexpart Lagrangian transport model (version 10.1). This version includes a new aerosol wet removal scheme, which better represents particle-scavenging processes than older versions did. Arctic BC at the surface (0–500 m) and high altitudes (4750–5250 m) is sensitive to emissions in high latitude (> 60° N) and mid-latitude (30–60° N) regions, respectively. Geospatial sources of Arctic BC were quantified, with a focus on emissions from anthropogenic activities and biomass burning in 2010. We found that anthropogenic sources contributed 82 % and 83 % of annual Arctic BC at the surface and high altitudes, respectively. Arctic surface BC comes predominantly from anthropogenic emissions in Russia (56 %), with gas flaring from the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug and Komi Republic being the main source (31 % of Arctic surface BC). These results highlight the need for regulations to control BC emissions from gas flaring to mitigate the rapid changes in the Arctic environment. In summer, combined biomass burning in Siberia, Alaska, and Canada contributes 56–85 % (75 % on average) and 40–72 % (57 %) of Arctic BC at the surface and high altitudes, respectively. A large fraction (40 %) of BC in the Arctic at high altitudes comes from anthropogenic emissions in East Asia, which suggests that the rapidly growing economies of developing countries could have a non-negligible effect on the Arctic. To our knowledge, this is the first year-round evaluation of Arctic BC sources that has been performed using the new wet deposition scheme in Flexpart. The study provides a scientific basis for actions to mitigate the rapidly changing Arctic environment.

Chunmao Zhu et al.
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Short summary
Black carbon is believed to be one of the causes of the rapid warming and glacier melting in the Arctic. The results of our study show that processes associated with the petroleum industry, such as gas flaring in Russia, are the main BC source at the Arctic surface. Emissions in East Asia are the main BC sources at high altitudes in the Arctic. Wildfires in Siberia, Alaska, and Canada are another important Arctic BC source in summer.
Black carbon is believed to be one of the causes of the rapid warming and glacier melting in the...
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