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© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 10 Apr 2019

Research article | 10 Apr 2019

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This discussion paper is a preprint. A revision of the manuscript is under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

The wet deposition of the inorganic ions in the 320 cities across China: spatiotemporal variation, source apportionment, and dominant factors

Rui Li1, Lulu Cui1, Yilong Zhao1, Ziyu Zhang1, Tianming Sun1, Junlin Li1, Wenhui Zhou1, Ya Meng1, and Hongbo Fu1,2,3 Rui Li et al.
  • 1Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention, Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Institute of Atmospheric Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433, China
  • 2Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Shanghai 200092, China
  • 3Collaborative Innovation Center of Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology (CICAEET), Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China

Abstract. The acid deposition has been considered to be a severe environmental issue in China. The pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and the concentrations of the water soluble ions (NO3, Cl, Ca2+, K+, F, NH4+, Mg2+, SO42−, and Na+) in the precipitation samples collected from the 320 cities during 2011–2016 across the whole China were measured. The mean concentrations of F, NO3 and SO42− were in the order of winter (6.10, 19.44 and 45.74 μeq/L) > spring (3.45, 13.83, and 42.61 μeq/L) > autumn (2.67, 9.73, and 28.85 μeq/L) > summer (2.04, 7.66, and 19.26 μeq/L). The secondary ions (SO42−, NO3 and NH4+), and F peaked in Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and Sichuan basin (SB). The crustal ions (i.e., Ca2+, Mg2+), Na+, and Cl showed the highest concentrations in the semi-arid regions and the coastal cities, respectively. The statistical methods confirmed that the mean anthropogenic contribution ratios to SO42−, F, NO3, and NH4+ at a national scale were 46.12 %, 71.02 %, 79.10 %, and 82.40 %, respectively. However, Mg2+ (70.51 %), K+ (77.44 %), and Ca2+ (82.17 %) were mostly originated from the crustal source. Both Na+ (70.54 %) and Cl (60.42 %) were closely linked to the sea-salt aerosols. On the basis of the stepwise regression (SR) analysis, it was proposed that most of the secondary ions and F were closely related to gross industrial production (GIP), total energy consumption (TEC), vehicle ownership, and N fertilizer use, but the crustal ions (Ca2+ and K+) were mainly controlled by the dust events. The influence of dust days, air temperature, and wind speed on ions increased from Southeast China (SEC) to Central China, and then to Northwest China (NWC), whereas the influence of socioeconomic factors on acid ions (SO42− and NO3) displayed the higher value in East China.

Rui Li et al.
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Rui Li et al.
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Short summary
The acid deposition was still an important environmental issue in China. The rainwater samples in 320 cities of China were collected to determine the acidic ion concentrations and identify their spatiotemporal variations and sources. The higher acidic ions showed the higher concentrations in winter. Furthermore, the highest acidic ion concentrations were mainly distributed on YRD and SB. These acidic ions were mainly sourced from industrial emissions and agricultural activities.
The acid deposition was still an important environmental issue in China. The rainwater samples...