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Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-16
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-16
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 14 Mar 2019

Research article | 14 Mar 2019

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This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

Distinctions in source regions and formation mechanisms of secondary aerosol in Beijing from summer to winter

Jing Duan1,2,3, Ru-Jin Huang1,2, Chunshui Lin1,2,4, Wenting Dai1,2, Meng Wang1,2,3, Yifang Gu1,2,3, Ying Wang1,2,3, Haobin Zhong1,2,3, Yan Zheng5, Haiyan Ni1,2,3,6, Uli Dusek6, Yang Chen7, Yongjie Li8, Qi Chen5, Douglas R. Worsnop9, Colin D. O'Dowd4, and Junji Cao1,2 Jing Duan et al.
  • 1State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology (SKLLQG) and Key Laboratory of Aerosol Chemistry & Physics (KLACP), Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an 710061, China
  • 2CAS Center for Excellence in Quaternary Science and Global Change, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an 710061,China
  • 3University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • 4School of Physics and Centre for Climate and Air Pollution Studies, Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway, Ireland
  • 5State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • 6Centre for Isotope Research (CIO), Energy and Sustainability Research Institute Groningen (ESRIG), University of Groningen, The Netherlands
  • 7Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 400714, China
  • 8Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Taipa, Macau
  • 9Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA, USA

Abstract. To investigate the sources and evolution of haze pollution in different seasons, long-term (from 15 August to 4 December 2015) variations of chemical composition of PM1 were characterized in Beijing, China. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis with multi-linear engine (ME-2) resolved three primary and two secondary OA sources, including hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), cooking OA (COA), coal combustion OA (CCOA), local secondary OA (LSOA) and regional SOA (RSOA). Distinctly different correlations between RSOA and sulfate were found in our study, with tight correlation (R2 = 0.71) in late summer, decreased correlation (R2 = 0.62) in autumn and almost no correlation (R2 = 0.02) in early winter. This difference implies that sulfate was mainly transported at a large regional scale in late summer, while local and/or nearby sulfate formation may be more important in winter. Secondary aerosol species including SIA (sulfate, nitrate and ammonium) and SOA (LSOA and RSOA) dominated PM1 during all three seasons. In particular, SOA contributed 46 % to total PM1 (with 31 % as RSOA) in late summer, whereas SIA contributed 41 % and 45 % to total PM1 in autumn and early winter, respectively. Enhanced contributions of secondary species (66–76 % of PM1) were also observed in pollution episodes during all three seasons, further emphasizing the importance of secondary formation processes in haze pollution in Beijing. Combining chemical composition and meteorological data, our analyses suggest that photochemical oxidation dominated SOA formation during all three seasons, while for sulfate formation, gas-phase photochemical oxidation was the major pathway in late summer and heterogeneous processes were likely more important in autumn and early winter.

Jing Duan et al.
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Short summary
We present the seasonal distinction of secondary aerosol formation in urban Beijing. Sulfate was mainly transported at a large regional scale in late summer, while local and/or nearby sulfate formation may be more important in winter. Photochemical oxidation dominated SOA formation during all three seasons, while for sulfate formation, gas-phase photochemical oxidation was the major pathway in late summer and heterogeneous processes were likely more important in autumn and early winter.
We present the seasonal distinction of secondary aerosol formation in urban Beijing. Sulfate was...
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