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© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 26 Feb 2019

Research article | 26 Feb 2019

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This discussion paper is a preprint. A revision of the manuscript is under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

Simulations of Black Carbon Over Indian Region: Improvements and Implications of Diurnality in Emissions

Gaurav Govardhan1,2, Sreedharan Krishnakumari Satheesh1,2, Krishnaswamy Krishna Moorthy1, and Ravi Nanjundiah1,2,3 Gaurav Govardhan et al.
  • 1Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India
  • 2Divecha Centre for Climate Change, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India
  • 3Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune, India

Abstract. With a view to improving the performance of WRF-Chem over the Indian region in simulating BC (black Carbon) mass concentrations as well as its short-term variations, especially on diurnal scale, a region-specific diurnal variation scheme has been introduced in the model emissios and the performance of the modified simulations has been evaluated against high-resolution measurements carried out over 8 ARFI (Aerosol Radiative Forcing over India) network observatories spread across India for distinct seasons; pre-monsoon (represented by May), post-monsoon (represented by October) and winter (represented by December). In addition to an overall improvement in the simulated concentrations and their temporal variations, it has also been found that the effects of prescribing diurnally varying emissions on the simulated near-surface concentrations largely depend on the boundary layer turbulence. The effects are perceived fast (within about 2–3 hours) during the evening–early morning hours when the atmospheric boundary layer is shallow and convective mixing is weak, while they are delayed, taking as much as about 5–6 hours, during periods when the boundary layer is deep and convective mixing is strong. This information would also serve as an important input for agencies concerned with urban planning and pollution mitigation. Despite these improvements in the near-surface concentrations, the simulated columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD) still remains largely underestimated vis-a-vis the satellite retrieved products. These modifications will serve as a guideline for further model-improvement initiatives at regional scale.

Gaurav Govardhan et al.
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Gaurav Govardhan et al.
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Short summary
We show substantial improvements in the near-surface BC mass concentrations simulated by a regional chemistry transport model WRF-Chem over the Indian region, upon scaling-up the CMIP5 equivalent anthropogenic BC emissions by 3 and introducing a diurnal variation to those. The diurnality in emissions alone significantly controls the simulated near-surface BC mass concentration with a mean delay of 3–4 hours. The simulated AOD, however, is still underestimated.
We show substantial improvements in the near-surface BC mass concentrations simulated by a...