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Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-1186
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-1186
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: research article 25 Feb 2020

Submitted as: research article | 25 Feb 2020

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A revised version of this preprint was accepted for the journal ACP and is expected to appear here in due course.

Shipping emissions in the Iberian Peninsula and its impacts on air quality

Rafael A. O. Nunes1, Maria C. M. Alvim-Ferraz1, Fernando G. Martins1, Fátima Calderay-Cayetano2, Vanessa Durán-Grados2, Juan Moreno-Gutiérrez2, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen3, Hanna Hannuniemi3, and Sofia I. V. Sousa1 Rafael A. O. Nunes et al.
  • 1LEPABE – Laboratory for Process Engineering, Environment, Biotechnology and Energy, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465, Porto, Portugal
  • 2Departamento de Máquinas y Motores Térmicos, Escuela de Ingenierías Marina, Náutica y Radioelectrónica, Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar (CEIMAR), Universidad de Cádiz, Spain
  • 3Finnish Meterological Institute, P.O. Box 503, 00101 Helsinki, Finland

Abstract. Marine traffic has been identified as a relevant source of pollutants, which cause known negative effects on air quality. The Iberian Peninsula is a central point in the connection of shipping traffic between the Americas and Africa and the rest of Europe. To estimate the effects of shipping emissions inland and around the Iberian Peninsula, EMEP MSC-W model was run considering and not considering shipping emissions (obtained with STEAM3 model). Total estimated emissions of CO, CO2, SOx, NOx and particulate matter (subdivided in elementary carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), sulphate and ash) for the study domain in 2015 were, respectively, 49 ktonnes y-1, 30000 ktonnes y-1, 360 ktonnes y-1, 710 ktonnes y-1, 4.5 ktonnes y-1, 11 ktonnes y-1, 32 ktonnes y-1 and 3.3 ktonnes y-1. Shipping emissions increased SO2 and NO2 concentrations especially near port areas and also increased the O3, sulphate, and particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) concentrations around all over the Iberian Peninsula coastline (especially in the south coastal region). Shipping emissions were responsible for exceedances of WHO air quality guideline for PM2.5 in areas far from the coastline, which confirms that shipping emissions can contribute negatively to air quality, both in coastal and in inland areas.

Rafael A. O. Nunes et al.

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Rafael A. O. Nunes et al.

Rafael A. O. Nunes et al.

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Short summary
The central position of the Iberian Peninsula in the connection of ship traffic between the Americas, Africa and Europe, and the known negative effects of this sector on air quality, emphasizes the relevance of a more detailed study of these impacts in this region. Results showed increased levels of SO2 and NO2 near port areas, as well as of O3, sulphate, and PM2.5 and PM10 over the Iberian Peninsula coastline due to shipping emissions. The study of mitigation measures application is crucial.
The central position of the Iberian Peninsula in the connection of ship traffic between the...
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