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© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: research article 17 Jan 2020

Submitted as: research article | 17 Jan 2020

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This preprint is currently under review for the journal ACP.

Statistical response of middle atmosphere composition to solar proton events in WACCM-D simulations: importance of lower ionospheric chemistry

Niilo Kalakoski1, Pekka T. Verronen1,2, Annika Seppälä3, Monika E. Szeląg1,*, Antti Kero2, and Daniel R. Marsh4,5 Niilo Kalakoski et al.
  • 1Space and Earth Observation Centre, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland
  • 2Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory, University of Oulu, Sodankylä, Finland
  • 3Department of Physics, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
  • 4Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, USA
  • 5Priestley International Centre for Climate, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
  • *previously published under the name M. E. Andersson

Abstract. Atmospheric effects of solar proton events (SPE) have been studied for decades, because their drastic impact can be used to test our understanding of upper stratospheric and mesospheric chemistry in the polar cap regions. For example, SPEs cause production of odd hydrogen and odd nitrogen, which leads to depletion of ozone in catalytic reactions, such that the effects are easily observed from satellites during the largest events. Until recently, the complexity of the ion chemistry in the lower ionosphere (i.e. in the D region) has restricted global models to simplified parameterizations of chemical impacts induced by energetic particle precipitation (EPP). Because of this restriction, global models have been unable to correctly reproduce some important effects, such as the increase of mesospheric HNO3 or the changes in chlorine species. Here we use simulations from the WACCM-D model, a variant of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model, to study the statistical response of the atmosphere to the 66 largest SPEs that occurred in years 1989–2012. Our model includes a set of D-region ion chemistry, designed for a detailed representation of the atmospheric effects of SPEs and EPP in general. We use superposed epoch analysis to study changes in O3, HOx (OH + HO2), Clx (Cl + ClO), HNO3, NOx (NO + NO2) and H2O. Compared to the standard WACCM which uses an ion chemistry parameterization, WACCM-D produces a larger response in O3 and NOx, weaker response in HOx and introduces changes in HNO3 and Clx. These differences between WACCM and WACCM-D highlight the importance of including ion chemistry reactions in models used to study EPP.

Niilo Kalakoski et al.

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Status: open (until 13 Mar 2020)
Status: open (until 13 Mar 2020)
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Niilo Kalakoski et al.

Niilo Kalakoski et al.


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Publications Copernicus
Short summary
Effects of Solar proton events (SPE) on middle atmosphere chemistry were studied using WACCM-D chemistry-climate model, including an improved representation of lower ionosphere ion chemistry. This study includes 66 events in years 1989–2012 and uses statistical approach to determine the impact of improved chemistry scheme. Differences shown highlight the importance of ion chemistry in models used to study energetic particle precipitation.
Effects of Solar proton events (SPE) on middle atmosphere chemistry were studied using WACCM-D...