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Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-1122
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-1122
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: research article 20 Dec 2019

Submitted as: research article | 20 Dec 2019

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This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

Long-term historical trends in air pollutant emissions in Asia: Regional Emission inventory in ASia (REAS) version 3.1

Junichi Kurokawa1 and Toshimasa Ohara2 Junichi Kurokawa and Toshimasa Ohara
  • 1Asia Center for Air Pollution Research, 1182 Sowa, Nishi-ku, Niigata, Niigata, 950-2144, Japan
  • 2National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8506, Japan

Abstract. A long-term historical emission inventory of air and climate pollutants in East, Southeast, and South Asia from 1950–2015 was developed as the Regional Emission inventory in ASia version 3.1 (REASv3.1). REASv3.1 provides details of emissions from major anthropogenic sources for each country and its sub-regions and also provides monthly gridded data with 0.25° × 0.25° resolution. The average total emissions in Asia during 1950–1955 and from 2010–2015 (growth rates in these 60 years) are as follows: SO2: 3.15 Tg, 42.4 Tg (13.5); NOx: 1.83 Tg, 47.6 Tg (26.0); CO: 62.2 Tg, 319 Tg (5.13); non-methane volatile organic compounds: 9.14 Tg, 61.8 Tg (6.77); NH3: 7.99 Tg, 31.3 Tg (3.92); CO2: 1.12 Pg, 18.3 Pg (16.3); PM10: 5.76 Tg, 28.4 Tg (4.92); PM2.5: 4.52 Tg, 20.3 Tg (4.50); black carbon: 0.751 Tg, 3.38 Tg (4.51); and organic carbon: 2.62 Tg, 6.92 Tg (2.64). Clearly, all the air pollutant emissions in Asia increased significantly during these six decades, but situations were different among countries and regions. Due to China's rapid economic growth in recent years, its relative contribution to emissions in Asia has been the largest. However, most pollutant species reached their peaks by 2015 and the growth rates of other species was found to be reduced or almost zero. On the other hand, air pollutant emissions from India showed an almost continuous increasing trend. As a result, the relative ratio of emissions of India to that of Asia have increased recently. The trend observed in Japan was different from the rest of Asia. In Japan, emissions increased rapidly during 1950s–1970s, which reflected the economic situation of the period; however, most emissions decreased from their peak values, which were approximately 40 years ago, due to the introduction of regulations and laws for air pollution. Similar features were found in the Republic of Korea and Taiwan. In the case of other Asian countries, air pollutant emissions generally showed an increase along with economic growth and motorization. Trends and spatial distribution of air pollutants in Asia are becoming complicated. Datasets of REASv3.1, including table of emissions by countries and sub-regions for major sectors and fuel types, and monthly gridded data with 0.25° × 0.25° resolution for major source categories are available through the following URL: http://www.nies.go.jp/REAS/.

Junichi Kurokawa and Toshimasa Ohara
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Status: open (until 29 Feb 2020)
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Junichi Kurokawa and Toshimasa Ohara
Junichi Kurokawa and Toshimasa Ohara
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Short summary
A long historical emission inventory of major air pollutants in Asia during 1950–2015 was developed as Regional Emission inventory in ASia version 3.1 (REASv3.1). Trends of emissions and changes of source contributions in countries and regions in Asia during these six decades were analyzed. REASv3.1 provides monthly gridded data with 0.25° by 0.25° resolution for major source categories as well as table of emissions by countries and sub-regions for major sectors and fuel types.
A long historical emission inventory of major air pollutants in Asia during 1950–2015 was...
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