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© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: research article 14 Jan 2020

Submitted as: research article | 14 Jan 2020

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

Long-term (1999–2019) variability of stratospheric aerosol over Mauna Loa, Hawaii, as seen by two co-located lidars and satellite measurements

Fernando Chouza1, Thierry Leblanc1, John Barnes2, Mark Brewer1, Patrick Wang1, and Darryl Koon1 Fernando Chouza et al.
  • 1Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Wrightwood, CA, USA
  • 2NOAA/ESRL/Global Monitoring Division, Boulder, CO, USA

Abstract. As part of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC), ground-based measurements obtained from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) stratospheric ozone lidar and the NOAA stratospheric aerosol lidar at Mauna Loa, Hawaii over the past two decades were used to investigate the impact of volcanic eruptions and pyro-cumulonimbus smoke plumes on the stratospheric aerosol load above Hawaii since 1999. Measurements at 355 nm and 532 nm conducted by these two lidars revealed Ångström exponents of −1.6 for background plumes and −0.6 for a PyroCb plume recorded on September 2017. Measurements of the Nabro plume by the JPL lidar in 2011/2012 showed a lidar ratio of (64 ± 12.7) sr at 355 nm around the center of the plume. The new GloSSAC, CALIOP Level 3 and SAGE III-ISS stratospheric aerosol datasets were compared to the ground-based lidar datasets. The intercomparison revealed a generally good agreement, with vertical profiles of extinction coefficient within 50 % of discrepancy between 17 km and 23 km above sea level (ASL), and 25 % above 23 km ASL. The stratospheric aerosol depth derived from all these datasets shows good agreement, with the largest discrepancy (20 %) being observed between the new CALIOP Level 3 and the other datasets. All datasets consistently reveal a relatively quiescent period between 1999 and 2005, followed by an active period of multiple eruptions (e.g., Nabro) until early 2012. Another quiescent period, with slightly higher aerosol background, lasted until mid-2017, when a combination of extensive wildfires and multiple volcanic eruptions caused a significant increase in stratospheric aerosol loading. This loading maximized at the very end of the time period considered (fall 2019) as a result of the Raikoke eruption, the plume of which ascended to 26 km altitude in less than three months.

Fernando Chouza et al.
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Fernando Chouza et al.
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