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Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-1016
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-1016
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: research article 26 Nov 2019

Submitted as: research article | 26 Nov 2019

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

Ship plumes in the Baltic Sea Sulphur Emission Control Area: Chemical characterization and contribution to coastal aerosol concentrations

Stina Ausmeel1, Axel Eriksson2, Erik Ahlberg1, Moa K. Sporre1, Mårten Spanne3, and Adam Kristensson1 Stina Ausmeel et al.
  • 1Division of Nuclear Physics, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund, Sweden
  • 2Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund, Sweden
  • 3Environment Department, City of Malmö, 208 50 Malmö, Sweden

Abstract. In coastal areas, there is increased concern about emissions from shipping activities and the associated impact on air quality. We have assessed the ship aerosol properties and the contribution to coastal particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels by measuring ship plumes in ambient conditions at a site in Southern Sweden, within a Sulphur Emission Control Area. Measurements took place during a summer and a winter campaign, 10 km downwind of a major shipping lane. Individual ships showed large variability in contribution to total particle mass, organics, sulphate, and NO2. The average emission contribution of the ship fleet was 29 ± 13 and 37 ± 20 ng m−3 to PM0.5, 18 ± 8 and 34 ± 19 ng m−3 to PM0.15, and 1.21 ± 0.57 and 1.11 ± 0.61 µg m−3 to NO2, during winter and summer respectively. Sulphate and organics dominated the particle mass and most plumes contained undetectable amounts of equivalent black carbon (eBC). The average eBC contribution was 3.5 ± 1.7 ng m−3 and the absorption Ångström exponent was close to 1. Simulated aging of the ship aerosols using an oxidation flow reactor showed that during a few occasions, there was an increase in sulphate and organic mass after photochemical processing of the plumes. However, most plumes did not produce measurable amounts of secondary PM upon simulated ageing.

Stina Ausmeel et al.
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Short summary
Emissions from shipping has an impact on air quality, especially in coastal areas. We have measured multiple properties of the particles in several plumes, from ships that are sailing within an Emission Control Area. Individual ships showed large variability in contribution to total particle mass and nitrogen dioxide. Organics and sulphate dominated the particle mass and most plumes contained very little or no soot. We also present recommendations for future stationary ship plume measurements.
Emissions from shipping has an impact on air quality, especially in coastal areas. We have...
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