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Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-995
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-995
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Review article 12 Oct 2018

Review article | 12 Oct 2018

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

New insights into aerosol and climate in the Arctic

Jonathan P. D. Abbatt1, W. Richard Leaitch2, Amir A. Aliabadi3, Alan K. Bertram4, Jean-Pierre Blanchet5, Aude Boivin-Rioux6, Heiko Bozem7, Julia Burkart8, Rachel Y. W. Chang9, Joannie Charette6, Jai P. Chaubey9, Robert J. Christensen1, Ana Cirisan5, Douglas B. Collins10, Betty Croft9, Joelle Dionne9, Greg J. Evans11, Christopher G. Fletcher12, Roghayeh Ghahremaninezhad2, Eric Girard5,*, Wanmin Gong2, Michel Gosselin6, Margaux Gourdal13, Sarah J. Hanna4, Hakase Hayashida14, Andreas B. Herber15, Sareh Hesaraki16, Peter Hoor7, Lin Huang2, Rachel Hussherr13, Victoria E. Irish4, Setigui A. Keita5, John K. Kodros17, Franziska Köllner7,18, Felicia Kolonjari2, Daniel Kunkel7, Luis A. Ladino19, Kathy Law20, Maurice Levasseur13, Quentin Libois5, John Liggio2, Martine Lizotte13, Katrina M. Macdonald11, Rashed Mahmood14,21, Randall V. Martin9, Ryan H. Mason4, Lisa A. Miller22, Alexander Moravek1, Eric Mortenson14, Emma L. Mungall1, Jennifer G. Murphy1, Maryam Namazi23, Ann-Lise Norman24, Norman T. O'Neill16, Jeffrey R. Pierce17, Lynn M. Russell25, Johannes Schneider18, Hannes Schulz15, Sangeeta Sharma2, Meng Si4, Ralf M. Staebler2, Nadja S. Steiner22, Martí Galí13, Jennie L. Thomas20, Knut von Salzen21, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell2, Megan D. Willis26, Gregory R. Wentworth1,27, Jun-Wei Xu9, and Jacqueline D. Yakobi-Hancock28 Jonathan P. D. Abbatt et al.
  • 1Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
  • 2Environment and Climate Change Canada, Toronto, Canada
  • 3School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada
  • 4Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
  • 5Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, Canada
  • 6Institut des sciences de la mer de Rimouski, Université du Québec à Rimouski, Rimouski, Canada
  • 7Institute for Atmospheric Physics, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany
  • 8Aerosol Physics & Environmental Physics, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
  • 9Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada
  • 10Department of Chemistry, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, USA
  • 11Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
  • 12Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada
  • 13Department of Biology, Université Laval, Quebec City, Canada
  • 14School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria, Canada
  • 15Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany
  • 16Centre d'Applications et de Recherches en Télédétection, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Canada
  • 17Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA
  • 18Particle Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany
  • 19Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, México City, México
  • 20ATMOS/IPSL, Sorbonne Université, UVSQ, CNRS, Paris, France
  • 21Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Victoria, Canada
  • 22Institute of Ocean Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Sidney, Canada
  • 23Department of Mathematics, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
  • 24Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada
  • 25Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, USA
  • 26Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, USA
  • 27Alberta Environment and Parks, Edmonton, Canada
  • 28National Research Council, Ottawa, Canada
  • *This paper is dedicated to Eric Girard, a NETCARE scientist who died July 10, 2018. Eric contributed greatly to the field of Arctic cloud and aerosol microphysics during his research career.

Abstract. Motivated by the need to predict how the Arctic atmosphere will change in a warming world, this article summarizes recent advances made by the research consortium NETCARE (Network on Climate and Aerosols: Addressing Key Uncertainties in Remote Canadian Environments) that contribute to our fundamental understanding of Arctic aerosol particles as they relate to climate forcing. The overall goal of NETCARE research has been to use an interdisciplinary approach encompassing extensive field observations and a range of chemical transport, earth system, and biogeochemical models. Several major findings and advances have emerged from NETCARE since its formation in 2013 . (1) Unexpectedly high summertime dimethyl sulfide (DMS) levels were identified in ocean water and the overlying atmosphere in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA). Furthermore, melt ponds, which are widely prevalent, were identified as an important DMS source. (2) Evidence was found of widespread particle nucleation and growth in the marine boundary layer in the CAA in the summertime. DMS-oxidation-driven nucleation is facilitated by the presence of atmospheric ammonia arising from sea bird colony emissions, and potentially also from coastal regions, tundra, and biomass burning. Via accumulation of secondary organic material (SOA), a significant fraction of the new particles grow to sizes that are active in cloud droplet formation. Although the gaseous precursors to Arctic marine SOA remain poorly defined, the measured levels of common continental SOA precursors (isoprene and monoterpenes) were low, whereas elevated mixing ratios of oxygenated volatile organic compounds were inferred to arise via processes involving the sea surface microlayer. (3) The variability in the vertical distribution of black carbon (BC) under both springtime Arctic haze and more pristine summertime aerosol conditions was observed. Measured particle size distributions and mixing states were used to constrain, for the first time, calculations of aerosol–climate interactions under Arctic conditions. Aircraft- and ground-based measurements were used to better establish the BC source regions that supply the Arctic via long-range transport mechanisms. (4) Measurements of ice nucleating particles (INPs) in the Arctic indicate that a major source of these particles is mineral dust, likely derived from local sources in the summer and long-range transport in the spring. In addition, INPs are abundant in the sea surface microlayer in the Arctic, and possibly play a role in ice nucleation in the atmosphere when mineral dust concentrations are low. (5) Amongst multiple aerosol components, BC was observed to have the smallest effective deposition velocities to high Arctic snow.

Jonathan P. D. Abbatt et al.
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Short summary
The Arctic is experiencing considerable environmental change with climate warming, illustrated by the dramatic decrease in sea ice extent. it is important to understand both the natural and perturbed Arctic systems to gain a better understanding of how they will change in the future. This paper summarizes new insights into the relationships between Arctic aerosol particles and climate, as learned over the past five or so years by a large Canadian research consortium, NETCARE.
The Arctic is experiencing considerable environmental change with climate warming, illustrated...
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