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© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 08 Oct 2018

Research article | 08 Oct 2018

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

In-cloud formation of secondary species in iron-containing particles

Qinhao Lin1, Xinhui Bi1, Guohua Zhang1, Yuxiang Yang1,2, Long Peng1,2, Xiufeng Lian1,2, Yuzhen Fu1,2, Mei Li3, Duohong Chen4, Mark Miller5, Ji Ou6, Mingjin Tang1, Xinming Wang1, Ping'an Peng1, Guoying Sheng1, and Zhen Zhou3 Qinhao Lin et al.
  • 1State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Resources Utilization and Protection, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China
  • 2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China
  • 3Institute of Mass Spectrometer and Atmospheric Environment, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China
  • 4State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Regional Air Quality Monitoring, Guangdong Environmental Monitoring Center, Guangzhou 510308, China
  • 5Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
  • 6Shaoguan Environmental Monitoring Center, Shaoguan 512026, China

Abstract. The increase of secondary species through cloud processing potentially increases aerosol iron (Fe) bioavailability. In this study, a ground-based counterflow virtual impactor coupled with a real-time single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer was used to characterize the formation of secondary species in Fe-containing cloud residues (dried cloud droplets) at a mountain site in southern China for nearly one month during the autumn of 2016. Fe-rich, Fe-dust, Fe-elemental carbon (Fe-EC), and Fe-vanadium (Fe-V) cloud residual types were obtained in this study. The Fe-rich particles, related to combustion sources, contributed 84% to the Fe-containing cloud residues, and the Fe-dust particles represented 12%. The remaining 4% consisted of the Fe-EC and Fe-V particles. It was found that extremely high amounts of sulfate had already accumulated on the Fe-containing particles before cloud events, leading to no distinct changes in sulfate during cloud events. Cloud processing contributed to the enhancement of nitrate, chloride, and oxalate in the Fe-containing cloud residues. However, the in-cloud formation of nitrate and chloride in the Fe-rich type was less obvious relative to the Fe-dust type. The enhancement of oxalate in the Fe-rich cloud residues was produced via aqueous oxidation of oxalate precursors (e.g., glyoxylate). Moreover, Fe chemistry involved in the Fenton reaction further promoted the conversion of the oxalate precursors to oxalate during cloud events, although the photolysis of Fe-oxalate complexes also existed in the Fe-rich cloud residues. This work emphasizes the role of combustion Fe sources in participating in cloud processing and has important implications for evaluating Fe bioavailability from combustion sources during cloud processing.

Qinhao Lin et al.
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Status: final response (author comments only)
Status: final response (author comments only)
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
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Qinhao Lin et al.
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