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Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-886
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-886
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 28 Sep 2018

Research article | 28 Sep 2018

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

The measurement of atmospheric CO2 at KMA/GAW regional stations, the characteristics, and comparisons with other East Asian sites

Haeyoung Lee1,2, Sang-Ok Han1, Sang-Boom Ryoo1, Jeong-soon Lee3, and Gang-woong Lee2 Haeyoung Lee et al.
  • 1Environmental Meteorology Research Division, National Institute of Meteorological Sciences, Jeju, 63568, Republic of Korea
  • 2Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratory, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Gyeonggi-do, 17035, Republic of Korea
  • 3Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon, 34113, Republic of Korea

Abstract. To understand the carbon cycle at policy-relevant spatial scales, a high density of high-quality CO2 measurement sites is needed. In 2012, the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) installed CO2 monitoring systems at Anmyeondo (AMY) in west, Jeju Gosan Suwolbong (JGS) in south-west and Ulleungdo (ULD) in east parts of Korea. Three stations were instrumented with identical greenhouse gas measurement systems based on Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) and a new drying system developed by KMA and Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS). This drying system is suitable in the humid areas; water vapour measured by the CRDS in ambient air was 0.001 to 0.004% across the stations. Measurement uncertainties expressed by the quadrature sum of the uncertainties from the drying system, scale propagations, repeatability, and reproducibility were ~0.11ppm from all KMA stations in 68% confidence interval. Average monthly CO2 enhancements above the local background at each station were 4.3±3.3ppm at AMY, 1.7±1.3ppm at JGS and ±1.9ppm (1σ) at ULD respectively during 2012 to 2016. At AMY station, located between China and Korea, CO2 annual means and seasonal variations are also greater than the other KMA stations indicating that it is affected not only by local vegetation, but also added anthropogenic sources. Selected baseline CO2 at AMY and at JGS in the west part of Korea are more sensitive to East Asia according to wind direction and speed. Through the comparison of long-term trends and growth rates at AMY with other East Asian stations over 15 years, it was suggested that they could be affected by not only local vegetation but also measurement quality.

Haeyoung Lee et al.
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We introduced our identical systems, which were installed at three Korea stations, with CRDS and a developed drying system. The measurement uncertainty was ~ 0.11 ppm across the stations. CO2 observed in west of Korea was very sensitive to East Asia (e.g., China) indicating that Korea data includes CO2 flux information from East Asia. Through the long-term comparison to other East Asia stations, it suggested that they could be affected by not only local vegetation but also measurement quality.
We introduced our identical systems, which were installed at three Korea stations, with CRDS and...
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