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Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-760
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-760
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 26 Jul 2018

Research article | 26 Jul 2018

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

Primary emissions versus secondary formation of fine particulate matter in the top polluted city, Shijiazhuang, in North China

Ru-Jin Huang1, Yichen Wang1, Junji Cao1, Chunshui Lin1,2, Jing Duan1, Qi Chen3, Yongjie Li4, Yifang Gu1, Jin Yan1, Wei Xu1,2, Roman Fröhlich5, Francesco Canonaco5, Carlo Bozzetti5, Jurgita Ovadnevaite2, Darius Ceburnis2, Manjula R. Canagaratna6, John Jayne6, Douglas R. Worsnop6, Imad El-Haddad5, André S. H. Prévôt5, and Colin D. O'Dowd2 Ru-Jin Huang et al.
  • 1Key Laboratory of Aerosol Chemistry & Physics, State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an 710061, China
  • 2School of Physics and Centre for Climate and Air Pollution Studies, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland
  • 3State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, China
  • 4Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Taipa, Macau, China
  • 5Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), 5232 Villigen, Switzerland
  • 6Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA, USA

Abstract. Particulate matter (PM) pollution is a severe environmental problem in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region in North China. PM studies have been conducted extensively in Beijing, but the chemical composition, sources, and atmospheric processes of PM are still relatively less known in the nearby Tianjin and Hebei. In this study, fine PM in urban Shijiazhuang (the capital of Hebei province) was characterized using an Aerodyne quadrupole aerosol chemical speciation monitor (Q-ACSM) from 11 January to 18 February in 2014. The average mass concentration of non-refractory submicron PM (diameter <1μm, NR-PM1) was 178±101µgm−3 and composed of 50% organic aerosol (OA), 21% sulfate, 12% nitrate, 11% ammonium, and 6% chloride. Using the Multilinear Engine (ME-2) receptor model, five OA sources were identified and quantified, including hydrocarbon-like OA from vehicle emissions (HOA, 13%), cooking OA (COA, 16%), biomass burning OA (BBOA, 17%), coal combustion OA (CCOA, 27%), and oxygenated OA (OOA, 27%). We found that secondary formation contributed substantially to PM in episodic events, while primary emissions were dominant (most significant) on average. The episodic events with the highest NR-PM1 mass range of 300–360μgm−3 showed 55% of secondary species. On the contrary, a campaign-average low OOA fraction (27%) in OA indicated the importance of primary emissions, and a low sulfur oxidation degree (FSO4) of 0.18 even at RH>90% hinted on insufficient oxidation. These results suggested that in wintertime Shijiazhuang fine PM was mostly from primary emissions without sufficient atmospheric aging, indicating opportunities for air quality improvement by mitigating direct emissions. In addition, secondary inorganic and organic (OOA) species dominated in pollution events with high RH conditions, most likely due to enhanced aqueous-phase chemistry, while primary organic aerosol (POA) dominated in pollution events with low RH and stagnant conditions. These results also highlighted the importance of meteorological conditions for PM pollution in this highly polluted city in North China.

Ru-Jin Huang et al.
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Status: final response (author comments only)
Status: final response (author comments only)
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
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