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https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-673
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-673
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 13 Aug 2018

Research article | 13 Aug 2018

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

Investigation of coastal sea-fog formation using the WIBS (Wideband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor) technique

Shane M. Daly1, David J. O'Connor2, David A. Healy1, Stig Hellebust1, Jovanna Arndt1, Patrick Feeney1, Michael Quirke1, Eoin McGillicuddy2, John C. Wenger1, and John R. Sodeau1 Shane M. Daly et al.
  • 1School of Chemistry and Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Ireland
  • 2School of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin, Ireland

Abstract. A Wideband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor (WIBS-4) was deployed in Haulbowline Island, Cork Harbour to detect fluorescence particles in real-time during July and September 2011. A Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) was also installed providing sizing analysis of the particles over the 10–450nm range. During the campaign, multiple fog formation events occurred; they coincided with dramatic increases in the recorded fluorescent particle counts. The WIBS sizing/fluorescence intensity profiles indicated that the origin of the signals was not biological in nature (i.e. PBAP, Primary Biological Aerosol Particles). Furthermore, the data did not support the presence of known fluorescing chemical particles like SOA (Secondary Organic Aerosol). Complementary laboratory studies showed that the field results could best be explained by the adsorption of molecular iodine onto water droplets to form I2.(H2O)x complexes. The release of iodine into the coastal atmosphere from exposed kelp at low-tides has been known for many years. This process leads to the production of small IxOy particles which can act as Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN). The current field study provides the first direct time-line link between molecular iodine release, particle formation and sea-fog formation. Of mechanistic interest is the fact that molecular iodine included into (rather than on) water droplets does not appear to fluoresce as measured using WIBS instrumentation. The study indicates a previously unsuspected stabilizing transport mechanism for iodine in the marine environment. Hence the stabilization of the molecular form would allow its more extensive distribution throughout the troposphere before eventual photolysis.

Shane M. Daly et al.
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Shane M. Daly et al.
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Short summary
Sea-salt particles were for a long time considered the only types of particles that drive sea-fog formation but recently iodine oxide particles released from kelp have been identified as a source. There are no previous field studies to provide a direct time-line link between molecular iodine release, particle formation and sea-fog formation. The present observations from Cork Harbour provide such a link. A stabilizing mechanism enhancing distribution of iodine in the troposphere is suggested.
Sea-salt particles were for a long time considered the only types of particles that drive...
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