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Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Research article
14 Feb 2018
Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).
Source Sector and Region Contributions to Black Carbon and PM2.5 in the Arctic
Negin Sobhani1,2, Sarika Kulkarni2,3, and Gregory R. Carmichael2 1National Center for Atmospheric Rese arch, Boulder (NCAR), Colorado, USA
2Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research (C GRER), University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA
3California Air Resources Board (CARB), Sacramento, California, USA
Abstract. The impacts of BC and PM2.5 emissions from different source sectors (e.g. transportation, power, industry, residential, and biomass burning) and source regions (e.g. Europe, North America, China, Russia, Central Asia, South Asia, and the Middle East) to Arctic BC and PM2.5 concentrations are investigated using a series of sensitivity runs with WRF-STEM modeling framework. The simulations are validated using aircraft observations over the Arctic during spring and summer 2008. Emissions from power, industrial, and biomass burning sectors are found to be the main contributors to the Arctic PM2.5 with contributions of ~ 30 %, ~ 25 %, and ~ 20 % respectively. In contrast, the residential and transportation sectors are identified as the major contributors to Arctic BC with contributions of ~ 38 % and ~ 30 %. Anthropogenic emissions are the most dominant contributors (~ 88 %) to the BC surface concentration over the Arctic; however, the contribution from biomass burning is significant over the summer (up to ~ 50 %). Among all geographical regions, Europe and China have the highest contributions to the BC surface concentrations with contributions of ~ 46 % and ~ 25 % respectively. Further sensitivity runs show that among various economic sectors of all geographic regions, European and Chinese residential sector contribute up to ~ 25 % and ~ 14 % to the Arctic average surface BC concentration. For Arctic PM2.5, the anthropogenic emissions contribute >~ 75 % at the surface annually, with contributions of ~ 25 % from Europe and ~ 20 % from China; however, the contributions of biomass burning emissions are significant in particular during spring and summer. The contributions of each geographical region to the Arctic PM2.5 and BC vary significantly with altitude. The simulations show that the BC from China is transported to the Arctic in the mid-troposphere, while, BC from European emission sources are transported near the surface under 5 km, especially during winter.
Citation: Sobhani, N., Kulkarni, S., and Carmichael, G. R.: Source Sector and Region Contributions to Black Carbon and PM2.5 in the Arctic, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,, in review, 2018.
Negin Sobhani et al.
Negin Sobhani et al.
Negin Sobhani et al.


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Short summary
Black carbon (BC) or soot, has a significant impact on the Arctic warming. For devising effective mitigation policies, it is essential to identify Arctic BC sources and transport pathways. We find that anthropogenic emissions from Europe and China are the largest contributors to the Arctic surface BC annually. Anthropogenic emissions contribute to ~ 88 % of Arctic BC surface concentration, but open wildfires in Siberia and Europe contribute up to ~ 50 % of the Arctic BC during spring and summer.
Black carbon (BC) or soot, has a significant impact on the Arctic warming. For devising...