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© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 17 Aug 2018

Research article | 17 Aug 2018

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This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

Annual cycle of water vapour in the lower stratosphere over the Indian Peninsula derived from Cryogenic Frost-point Hygrometer observations

Maria Emmanuel1,3, Sukumarapillai V. Sunilkumar1, Muhsin Muhammed1, Buduru Suneel Kumar2, Nagendra Neerudu2, Geetha Ramkumar1, Kunjukrishnapillai Rajeev1, and Krishnasamyiyer Parameswaran1 Maria Emmanuel et al.
  • 1Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Trivandrum-695022, India
  • 2Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Balloon Faci lity, Hyderabad-500062, India
  • 3Department of Physics, University of Kerala, Trivandrum 695034, India

Abstract. In situ measurements of lower stratospheric water vapour employing Cryogenic Frost point Hygrometer (CFH) over two tropical stations, Trivandrum (8.53 °N, 76.87 °E) and Hyderabad (17.47 °N, 78.58 °E) over the Indian subcontinent are conducted as part of Tropical Tropopause Dynamics (TTD) monthly campaigns under GARNETS program. The annual variation of lower stratosphere (LS) water vapour clearly depicts the so called tape recorder effect at both the stations. The ascent rate of water vapour compares well with the velocity of Brewer-Dobson circulation and is slightly higher over the equatorial station when compared to the off-equatorial station. The column integrated water vapour in the LS varies in the range 1.5 to 4 g/m2 with low values during winter and high values during summer monsoon and post monsoon seasons and its variability shows the signatures of local dynamics. The variation in water vapour mixing ratio (WVMR) at the cold point tropopause (CPT) exactly follows the variation in CPT temperature. The difference in WVMR between the stations shows a semi-annual variability in the altitude region 18–20 km region with high values of WVMR during summer monsoon and winter over Hyderabad and during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon over Trivandrum. This difference is related to the influence of the variations in local CPT temperature and deep convection. The monsoon dynamics has a significant role in stratospheric water vapour distribution in summer monsoon season.

Maria Emmanuel et al.
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Maria Emmanuel et al.
Maria Emmanuel et al.
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Short summary
Annual variation of lower stratospheric water vapour over two tropical stations Trivandrum (South west Peninsular India) and Hyderabad (South central India) in Indian Peninsula is studied using Cryogenic Frost point Hygrometer observations during the period 2015–2016. Though the mean annual cycle in lower stratospheric water vapour is determined by the annual cycle in the CPT temperature and large scale dynamics, local processes also modulates it in the altitude region just above the tropopause.
Annual variation of lower stratospheric water vapour over two tropical stations Trivandrum...