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Discussion papers | Copyright
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-565
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 08 Oct 2018

Research article | 08 Oct 2018

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This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

Long-term trends of instability and associated parameters over the Indian region obtained using radiosonde network

Rohit Chakraborty, Madineni Venkat Ratnam, and Ghouse Basha Rohit Chakraborty et al.
  • National Atmospheric Research Laboratory, India

Abstract. Long-term trends of the parameters related to convection and instability obtained from 27 radiosonde stations across 6 sub-divisions over Indian region during the period 1980–2016 is presented. A total of 16 parcel and instability parameters along with moisture content, wind shear, and thunderstorm and rainfall frequencies have been utilized for this purpose. Robust fit regression analysis is employed on the regional average time series to calculate the long-term trends on both seasonal and yearly basis. The Level of Free Convection (LFC) and Equilibrium Level (EL) height is found to ascend significantly in all Indian sub-divisions. Consequently, the coastal regions (particularly the western coasts) experience strengthening in Severe Thunderstorm (TSS) and Severe Rainfall Frequencies (SRF) in the pre-monsoon while the inland regions (especially central India) experience an increase in Ordinary Thunderstorm (TSO) and Weak Rain Frequency (WRF) during the monsoon and post-monsoon. The 16–20 year periodicity is found to dominate the long-term trends significantly compared to other periodicities and the increase in TSS, SRF and CAPE is found more severe after the year 1999. The enhancement in moisture transport and associated cooling at 100hPa along with dispersion of boundary layer pollutants is found to be the main cause for the increase in Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) which leads to more convective severity in the coastal regions. However, in inland regions moisture-laden winds are absent and the presence of strong capping effect of pollutants on instability in the lower troposphere has resulted in more Convective Inhibition Energy (CINE). Hence, TSO and weak rainfall occurrences have increased particularly in these regions.

Rohit Chakraborty et al.
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Short summary
Intense convective phenomena are a common climatic feature in the Indian tropical region which occurs during the pre-monsoon to post-monsoon seasons (April–October) and they are generally accompanied by intense thunderstorms, lightning, wind gusts with heavy rainfall. Here we show long-term trends of the parameters related to convection and instability obtained from 27 radiosonde stations across 6 sub-divisions over Indian region during the period 1980–2016.
Intense convective phenomena are a common climatic feature in the Indian tropical region which...
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