Journal cover Journal topic
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Journal topic

Journal metrics

Journal metrics

  • IF value: 5.509 IF 5.509
  • IF 5-year value: 5.689 IF 5-year 5.689
  • CiteScore value: 5.44 CiteScore 5.44
  • SNIP value: 1.519 SNIP 1.519
  • SJR value: 3.032 SJR 3.032
  • IPP value: 5.37 IPP 5.37
  • h5-index value: 86 h5-index 86
  • Scimago H index value: 161 Scimago H index 161
Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-505
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-505
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 20 Jun 2018

Research article | 20 Jun 2018

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It has been under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP). The revised manuscript was not accepted.

Temporal evolution of chlorine and minor species related to ozone depletion observed with ground-based FTIR at Syowa Station, Antarctica and satellites during austral fall to spring in 2007 and 2011

Hideaki Nakajima1,2, Isao Murata2, Yoshihiro Nagahama1, Hideharu Akiyoshi1, Kosuke Saeki2,3, Masanori Takeda2, Yoshihiro Tomikawa4,5, and Nicholas B. Jones6 Hideaki Nakajima et al.
  • 1National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8506, Japan
  • 2Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8572, Japan
  • 3now at Weathernews Inc., Chiba, 261-0023, Japan
  • 4National Institute of Polar Research, Tachikawa, Tokyo, 190-8518, Japan
  • 5The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Tachikawa, Tokyo, 190-8518, Japan
  • 6University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, 2522, Australia

Abstract. To understand and project future ozone recovery, understanding of mechanisms related to polar ozone destruction is crucial. For polar stratospheric ozone destruction, chlorine species play an important role, but detailed temporal evolution of chlorine species in the Antarctic winter is not well understood. We retrieved lower stratospheric vertical profiles of O3, HNO3, and HCl from solar spectra taken with a ground-based Fourier-Transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) installed at Syowa Station, Antarctica (69.0ºS, 39.6ºE) from March to December 2007 and September to November 2011. We analyzed temporal variation of these species combined with ClO, HCl, and HNO3 data taken with the Aura/MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) satellite sensor, and ClONO2 data taken with the Envisat/MIPAS (The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding) satellite sensor at 18 and 22km over Syowa Station. When the stratospheric temperature over Syowa Station fell below polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) saturation temperature in early winter, PSCs started to form and heterogeneous reaction on PSCs convert chlorine reservoirs into reactive chemical species. HCl and ClONO2 decrease occurred at both 18 and 22km, and soon ClONO2 was almost depleted in early winter. When the sun returned to Antarctica in spring, enhancement of ClO and gradual O3 destruction were observed. During the ClO enhanced period, negative correlation between ClO and ClONO2 was observed in the time-series of the data at Syowa Station. This negative correlation was associated with the distance between Syowa Station and the inner edge of the polar vortex. Temporal variation of chlorine species over Syowa Station was affected by both heterogeneous chemistry related to PSC occurrence deep inside the polar vortex, and transport of an NONOx-rich airmass from lower latitudinal polar vortex boundary region which can produce additional ClONO2 by reaction between ClO and NO2. We used MIROC3.2 Chemistry-Climate Model (CCM) results to see the comprehensive behavior of chlorine and related species inside the polar vortex and the edge region in more detail. Rapid conversion of chlorine reservoir species (HCl and ClONO2) into Cl2, gradual conversion of Cl2 into Cl2O2, increase of ClO when sunlight became available, and conversion of ClO into HCl, was successfully reproduced by the CCM. HCl decrease in the winter polar vortex core continued to occur due to the transport of ClONO2 from the subpolar region (55–65ºS) to higher latitudes (65–75ºS), providing a flux of ClONO2 from more sunlit latitudes into the polar vortex. The deactivation pathways from active ClO into reservoir species (HCl and/or ClONO2) were found to be highly dependent on the availability of ambient O3 and NOx. At an altitude where most ozone was depleted in Antarctica, most ClO was converted to HCl. However, when there were some O3 and NOx available, super-recovery of ClONO2 can occur, similar to the case in the Arctic.

Hideaki Nakajima et al.
Interactive discussion
Status: closed
Status: closed
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
Printer-friendly Version - Printer-friendly version Supplement - Supplement
Interactive discussion
Status: closed
Status: closed
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
Printer-friendly Version - Printer-friendly version Supplement - Supplement
Hideaki Nakajima et al.
Hideaki Nakajima et al.
Viewed
Total article views: 370 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)
HTML PDF XML Total BibTeX EndNote
284 71 15 370 10 9
  • HTML: 284
  • PDF: 71
  • XML: 15
  • Total: 370
  • BibTeX: 10
  • EndNote: 9
Views and downloads (calculated since 20 Jun 2018)
Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 20 Jun 2018)
Viewed (geographical distribution)
Total article views: 370 (including HTML, PDF, and XML) Thereof 367 with geography defined and 3 with unknown origin.
Country # Views %
  • 1
1
 
 
 
 
Cited
Saved
No saved metrics found.
Discussed
No discussed metrics found.
Latest update: 15 Nov 2018
Publications Copernicus
Download
Short summary
This paper presents characteristics of temporal evolution of stratospheric chlorine and minor species related to Antarctic ozone depletion, based on both ground-based FTIR and satellite measurements by MLS and MIPAS in 2007 and 2011. After chlorine reservoir species (HCl or ClONO2) were processed on PSCs and active ClO was formed, different chlorine deactivation pathways into reservoir species were identified, depending on availability of ambient available O3 and NOx amounts.
This paper presents characteristics of temporal evolution of stratospheric chlorine and minor...
Citation
Share