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Discussion papers | Copyright
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 12 Jun 2018

Research article | 12 Jun 2018

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This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

A new global anthropogenic SO2 emission inventory for the last decade: A mosaic of satellite-derived and bottom-up emissions

Fei Liu1,2, Sungyeon Choi2,3, Can Li2,4, Vitali E. Fioletov5, Chris A. McLinden5, Joanna Joiner2, Nickolay A. Krotkov2, Huisheng Bian2,6, Greet Janssens-Maenhout7, Anton S. Darmenov2, and Arlindo M. da Silva2 Fei Liu et al.
  • 1Universities Space Research Association (USRA), GESTAR, Columbia, MD, USA
  • 2NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA
  • 3Science Systems and Applications Inc., Lanham, MD, USA
  • 4Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA
  • 5Air Quality Research Division, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Toronto, ON, Canada
  • 6Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology Center, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, USA
  • 7European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via Fermi, Ispra (VA), Italy

Abstract. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite sensor have been used to detect emissions from large point sources. Emissions from over 400 sources have been quantified individually based on OMI observations, accounting for about a half of total reported anthropogenic SO2 emissions. Here we report a newly developed emission inventory, OMI-HTAP, by combining these OMI-based emission estimates and the conventional bottom-up inventory, HTAP, for smaller sources that OMI is not able to detect. OMI-HTAP includes emissions from OMI-detected sources that are not captured in previous leading bottom-up inventories, enabling more accurate emission estimates for regions with such missing sources. OMI-HTAP SO2 emissions estimates for Persian Gulf, Mexico, and Russia are 59%, 65%, and 56% higher than HTAP estimates, respectively, in year 2010. We have evaluated the OMI-HTAP inventory by performing simulations with the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model. The GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations driven by both HTAP and OMI-HTAP were compared against in situ measurements. We focus the validation on year 2010 for which HTAP is most valid and a relatively large number of in situ measurements are available. Results show that the OMI-HTAP inventory improves the model agreement with observations, in particular over the US, with the normalized mean bias decreasing from 0.41 (HTAP) to −0.03 (OMI-HTAP) for year 2010. Additionally, our approach offers the possibility of rapid updates to emissions from large point sources that can be detected by satellites. Simulations with the OMI-HTAP inventory capture the worldwide major trends of large anthropogenic SO2 emissions that are observed with OMI. For example, correlation coefficients of the observed and modelled surface SO2 in 2014 increase from 0.16 (HTAP) to 0.59 (OMI-HTAP) and the normalized mean bias dropped from 0.29 (HTAP) to 0.05 (OMI-HTAP), when we updated 2010 HTAP emissions with 2014 OMI-HTAP emissions in the model. Our methodology applied to OMI-HTAP can also be used to merge improved satellite-derived estimates with other multi-year bottom-up inventories, which may further improve the accuracy of the emission trends.

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Fei Liu et al.
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Short summary
Sulfur dioxide measurements from space have been used to detect emissions from large sources. We developed a new emission inventory by combining the satellite-based emission estimates and the conventional bottom-up inventory for smaller sources. The new inventory improves the model agreement with in situ observations and offers the possibility of rapid updates to emissions.
Sulfur dioxide measurements from space have been used to detect emissions from large sources. We...