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Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-290
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Research article
16 Apr 2018
Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).
Climatology of mesopause region nocturnal temperature, zonal wind, and sodium density observed by sodium lidar over Hefei, China (32° N, 117° E)
Tao Li1, Chao Ban1,a, Xin Fang1, Jing Li1, Zhaopeng Wu1, Wuhu Feng2,3, John M. C. Plane2, Jianguang Xiong4, Daniel R. Marsh5, Michael J. Mills5, and Xiankang Dou1 1CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China
2School of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom
3NCAS, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom
4Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
5National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, USA
anow at: Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
Abstract. The University of Science and Technology of China narrowband sodium temperature/wind lidar, located in Hefei, China (32° N, 117° E), has made routine nighttime measurements since January 2012. 154 nights (~ 1400 hours) of vertical profiles of temperature, sodium density, and zonal wind, and 83 nights (~ 800 hours) of vertical flux of gravity wave (GW) zonal momentum in the mesopause region (80–105 km) have been obtained during the period from 2012 to 2016. In temperature, it is most likely that the diurnal tide dominates below 100 km in spring, while the semidiurnal tide dominates above 100 km throughout the year. A clear semiannual variation in temperature is revealed near 90 km, in phase with the tropical mesospheric semiannual oscillation (MSAO). The variability of sodium density is positively correlated with temperature below 95 km, suggesting that in addition to dynamics, the chemistry also plays an important role in the formation of sodium atoms. The seasonal variability of sodium density observed by both lidar and satellite generally agrees well with a whole atmosphere model simulation using an updated meteoric input function which includes different cosmic dust sources. In zonal wind, the diurnal tide dominates in both spring and fall, while semidiurnal tide dominates in winter. The observed semiannual variation in zonal wind near 90 km is out-of-phase with that in temperature, consistent with the tropical MSAO. The GW zonal momentum flux is mostly westward in fall and winter, anti-correlated with eastward zonal wind. The annual mean flux averaged over 87–97 km is ~ −0.3 m2/s2 (westward), anti-correlated with eastward zonal wind of ~ 10 m/s. The lidar observations generally agree with satellite and meteor radar observations as well as model simulations at similar latitudes.
Citation: Li, T., Ban, C., Fang, X., Li, J., Wu, Z., Feng, W., Plane, J. M. C., Xiong, J., Marsh, D. R., Mills, M. J., and Dou, X.: Climatology of mesopause region nocturnal temperature, zonal wind, and sodium density observed by sodium lidar over Hefei, China (32° N, 117° E), Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-290, in review, 2018.
Tao Li et al.
Tao Li et al.
Tao Li et al.

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Short summary
154 nights of observations made by the USTC sodium T/U lidar suggest a significant seasonal variability of mesopause. The sodium density variability suggests that in addition to dynamics, the chemistry also plays an important role in the formation of sodium atoms. For the first time, we quantitatively measured gravity wave (GW) momentum flux over this regional area, which can determine the GW forcing. The lidar results are extremely valuable to improve the accuracy and precision of a GCM model.
154 nights of observations made by the USTC sodium T/U lidar suggest a significant seasonal...
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