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Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-285
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Research article
16 Apr 2018
Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).
Satellite-derived sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions from the 2014–2015 Holuhraun eruption (Iceland)
Elisa Carboni1, Tamsin A. Mather2, Anja Schmidt3,4, Roy G. Grainger1, Melissa A. Pfeffer5, and Iolanda Ialongo6 1COMET, Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU, UK
2COMET, Department of Earth Science, University of Oxford, South Park Road, Oxford OX1 3AN, UK
3Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 1EW, UK
4Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, Downing Place, Cambridge CB2 3EN, UK
5Icelandic Meteorological Office, Bustadavegur 7–9, Reykjavik, Iceland
6Space and Earth Observation Centre, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland
Abstract. The six-month-long 2014–2015 Holuhraun eruption was the largest in Iceland for 200 years, emitting huge quantities of sulphur dioxide (SO2) into the troposphere, at times overwhelming European anthropogenic emissions. Weather, terrain and latitude, made continuous ground-based or UV satellite sensor measurements challenging. Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) data, is used to derive the first time-series of daily SO2 mass and vertical distribution over the eruption period. A new optimal estimation scheme is used to calculate daily SO2 fluxes and average e-folding time every twelve hours. The algorithm is used to estimate SO2 fluxes of up to 200 kt per day and a minimum total SO2 erupted mass of 4.4 ± 0.8 Tg. The average SO2 e-folding time was 2.4 ± 0.6 days. Where comparisons are possible, these results broadly agree with ground-based near-source measurements, independent remote-sensing data and model simulations of the eruption. The results highlight the importance of high-resolution time-series data to accurately estimate volcanic SO2 emissions.
Citation: Carboni, E., Mather, T. A., Schmidt, A., Grainger, R. G., Pfeffer, M. A., and Ialongo, I.: Satellite-derived sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions from the 2014–2015 Holuhraun eruption (Iceland), Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-285, in review, 2018.
Elisa Carboni et al.
Elisa Carboni et al.
Elisa Carboni et al.

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Short summary
The 2014–2015 Holuhraun eruption was the largest in Iceland for 200 years, emitting huge quantities of gas into the troposphere, at times overwhelming European anthropogenic emissions. Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer data, are used to derive the first time-series of daily sulphur dioxide mass and vertical distribution over the eruption period. A scheme is used to estimate: sulphur dioxide fluxes, the total erupted mass, and how long the sulphur dioxide remains in atmosphere.
The 2014–2015 Holuhraun eruption was the largest in Iceland for 200 years, emitting huge...
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