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Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-220
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Research article
12 Mar 2018
Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).
Toward resolving the mysterious budget discrepancy of ozone-depleting CCl4: An analysis of top-down emissions from China
Sunyoung Park1,2, Shanlan Li2,3, Jens Mühle4, Simon O'Doherty5, Ray F. Weiss4, Xuekun Fang6, Stefan Reimann7, and Ronald G. Prinn6 1Department of Oceanography Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea
2Kyungpook Institute of Oceanography Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea
3Climate Research Division, National Institute of Meteorological Sciences, Seogwipo, Korea
4Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
5School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
6Center for Global Change Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
7Empa, Laboratory for Air Pollution and Environmental Technology, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland
Abstract. Emissive production and use of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), one of the first-generation ozone-depleting substances, have been banned by the Montreal Protocol with the 2010 phase-out for developing countries, but production and consumption for non-dispersive use as a chemical feedstock and as process agent are still allowed. Here, we present evidence that significant unreported emissions of CCl4 still persist, based on the high frequency and magnitude of CCl4 pollution events observed in the 8-year real time atmospheric measurement record at Gosan station, a regional background monitoring site in East Asia. From this we estimate top-down emissions of CCl4 amounting to 23.6 ± 7.1 Gg yr−1 from 2011 to 2015 for China, in contrast to the 4.3–5.2 Gg yr−1 reported as the most up-to-date post-2010 Chinese bottom-up emissions. The missing emissions (~ 19 Gg yr−1) for China are highly significant, contributing about 54 % of global CCl4 emissions. We show that 89 ± 6 % of the CCl4 enhancements observed at Gosan can be accounted for by fugitive emissions of CCl4 occurring at the factory level during the production of CH3Cl, CH2Cl2, CHCl3 and C2Cl4 (PCE) and feedstock and solvent use in chemical manufacturing industries. Thus, it is crucial to implement technical improvements and better regulation strategies to reduce the evaporative losses of CCl4 occurring at the factory and/or process level.
Citation: Park, S., Li, S., Mühle, J., O'Doherty, S., Weiss, R. F., Fang, X., Reimann, S., and Prinn, R. G.: Toward resolving the mysterious budget discrepancy of ozone-depleting CCl4: An analysis of top-down emissions from China, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-220, in review, 2018.
Sunyoung Park et al.
Sunyoung Park et al.
Sunyoung Park et al.

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Short summary
Measured at the Gosan station (33° N, 126° E) on Jeju Island, Korea show that significant unreported emissions of this important ozone-depleting substance still persist in China. The missing emissions for China contributes more than 50 % of global CCl4 emissions, and are most likely associated with fugitive emissions occurring at the factory level as by-product, feedstock, and solvent/process agent from chlorinated compounds plants.
Measured at the Gosan station (33° N, 126° E) on Jeju Island, Korea show that significant...
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