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Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-1328
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-1328
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 14 Jan 2019

Research article | 14 Jan 2019

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This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

Taehwa Research Forest: A receptor site for severe pollution events in Korea during 2016

John T. Sullivan1, Thomas J. McGee1, Ryan M. Stauffer1,2, Anne M. Thompson1, Andrew Weinheimer3, Christoph Knote4, Scott Janz1, Armin Wisthaler5,6, Russell Long7, James Szykman7,8, Jinsoo Park9, Youngjae Lee9, Saewung Kim10, Daun Jeong10, Dianne Sanchez10, Laurence Twigg1,11, Grant Sumnicht1,11, Travis Knepp8,12, and Jason R. Schroeder13 John T. Sullivan et al.
  • 1Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, 20771, USA
  • 2Universities Space Research Association, Columbia, MD, 21046, USA
  • 3National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, 80305, USA
  • 4Meteorologisches Institut, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, München, Germany
  • 5Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
  • 6Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria
  • 7US EPA/Office of Research and Development/National Exposure Research Lab, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27711, USA
  • 8NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, 2368, USA
  • 9National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon, South Korea
  • 10Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA
  • 11Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Lanham, MD, 20706, USA
  • 12Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Hampton, VA, 23666, USA
  • 13California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, CA, 95814, USA

Abstract. During the May-June 2016 International Cooperative Air Quality Field Study in Korea (KORUS-AQ), light synoptic meteorological forcing facilitated Seoul metropolitan pollution outflow to reach the remote Taehwa Research Forest (TRF) site and cause regulatory exceedances on 24 days. Two of these severe pollution events are thoroughly examined. The first, occurring on 17 May 2016, tracks transboundary pollution transport exiting eastern China and the Yello Sea, traversing the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), and then reaching TRF in the afternoon hours with severely polluted conditions. This case study indicates that although outflow from China and the Yellow Sea were elevated with respect to chemically unperturbed conditions, the regulatory exceedance at TRF was directly linked in time, space, and altitude to urban Seoul emissions. The second case studied, occurring on 09 June 2016, reveals that increased levels of biogenic emissions, in combination with amplified urban emissions, were associated with severe levels of pollutions and a regulatory exceedance at TRF. The case studies are assessed with multiple aircraft, model (photochemical and meteorological) simulations, in-situ chemical sampling, and extensive ground-based profiling at TRF. These observations clearly identify TRF and the surrounding rural communities as receptor sites for severe pollution events associated with Seoul outflow, which will result in long-term negative effects to both human health and agriculture in the affected areas.

John T. Sullivan et al.
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Short summary
During the May–June 2016 International Cooperative Air Quality Field Study in Korea (KORUS-AQ), light winds and warm temperatures facilitated Seoul metropolitan pollution to reach the remote Taehwa Research Forest (TRF) site and cause regulatory exceedances. Two of these severe pollution events are thoroughly examined and observations clearly identify TRF and the surrounding rural communities as long-term receptor sites for severe urban pollution events.
During the May–June 2016 International Cooperative Air Quality Field Study in Korea (KORUS-AQ),...
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