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Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-1237
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-1237
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 17 Dec 2018

Research article | 17 Dec 2018

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This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

Variability of temperature and ozone in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere from multi-satellite observations and reanalysis data

Ming Shangguan1, Wuke Wang2,3,4, and Shuanggen Jin5,6 Ming Shangguan et al.
  • 1School of Transportation, School of Transportation, Southeast University, Nanjing 21189, China
  • 2Institute for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
  • 3Joint International Research Laboratory of Atmospheric and Earth System Sciences (JirLATEST), Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
  • 4Collaborative Innovation Center of Climate Change, Jiangsu Province, Nanjing 210023, China
  • 5Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Acadmy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030, China
  • 6School of Remote Sensing and Geomatics Engineering, Najing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China

Abstract. Temperature and ozone changes in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) are important components and sensitive indicators of climate change. In this paper, variability and trends of temperature and ozone in the UTLS were investigated for the period 2002–2017 using the high quality, high vertical resolution GPS RO data, improved merged satellite data sets (SWOOSH and C3S) and reanalysis data sets (including the newest ERA5, MERRA2 and ERA-Interim). All three reanalyses show good agreement with the GPS RO measurements in absolute values, annual cycle as well as interannual variabilities of temperature. However, relatively large biases exist for the period 2002–2006, which reveals an evident discontinuity of temperature time series in reanalyses. Based on the multiple linear regression methods, a significant warming of 0.2–0.3K/decade is found in most areas of the troposphere with stronger increase of 0.4–0.5K/decade in mid-latitudes of both hemispheres. In contrast, the stratospheric temperature decreases at a rate of 0.1–0.3K/decade except that in the lower most stratosphere (100–50hPa) in the tropics and parts of mid-latitude in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). ERA5 shows improved quality compared with ERA-Interim and performs the best agreement with the GPS RO data for the recent trends of temperature. Similar with temperature, reanalyses ozone are also affected by the change of assimilated observations and methods. Negative trends of ozone are found in NH at 150–100hPa while positive trends are evident in the tropical lower stratosphere. Asymmetric trends of ozone can be found for both hemispheres in the middle stratosphere, with significant ozone decrease in NH mid-latitudes and increase of ozone in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) mid-latitudes. According to model simulations, the temperature increase in the troposphere as well as ozone decrease in the NH stratosphere could be mainly connected to the increase of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and subsequent changes of atmospheric circulations.

Ming Shangguan et al.
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A significant warming in the troposphere and cooling in the stratosphere are found in satellite measurements (2002–2017). The newest ERA5 data is firstly used for analyzing temperature and ozone trends in the UTLS and shows the best quality compared to other reanalyses. According to model simulations, the temperature increase in the troposphere and ozone decrease in the NH stratosphere are mainly connected to a surface warming of the ocean and subsequent changes of atmospheric circulations.
A significant warming in the troposphere and cooling in the stratosphere are found in satellite...
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