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Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 03 Dec 2018

Research article | 03 Dec 2018

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This discussion paper is a preprint. A revision of the manuscript was accepted for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

High Time Resolution Source Apportionment of PM2.5 in Beijing with Multiple Models

Yue Liu1, Mei Zheng1, Mingyuan Yu1, Xuhui Cai1, Huiyun Du2,3, Jie Li2, Tian Zhou1, Caiqing Yan1, Xuesong Wang1, Zongbo Shi4,5, Roy M. Harrison4,6, Qiang Zhang7, and Kebin He7 Yue Liu et al.
  • 1SKL-ESPC and BIC-ESAT, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • 2State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
  • 3Center for Excellence in Urban Atmospheric Environment, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen, China
  • 4Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
  • 5Institute of Surface Earth System Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China
  • 6Department of Environmental Sciences/Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, 15 PO Box 80203, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia
  • 7State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China

Abstract. Beijing has suffered from heavy local emissions as well as regional transport of air pollutants, resulting in severe atmospheric fine particle (PM2.5) pollution. This study developed a combined method to investigate source types of PM2.5 and its source regions during winter 2016 in Beijing, which include receptor model, footprint, and an air quality model. The receptor model was performed with high-time resolution measurements of trace elements, water soluble ions, organic carbon, and elemental carbon using online instruments during the wintertime campaign of the Air Pollution and Human Health-Beijing (APHH-Beijing) program in 2016. Source types and their contributions estimated by the receptor model (Positive Matrix Factorization, PMF) using online measurement were linked with source regions identified by the footprint model, and the regional transport contribution was estimated by an air quality model (the Nested Air Quality Prediction Model System, NAQPMS) to analyze the specific sources and source regions during haze episodes. Our results show that secondary and biomass burning sources were dominated by regional transport while the coal combustion source showed an increased local contribution, suggesting that strict control strategies for local coal combustion in Beijing and a reduction of biomass burning and gaseous precursor emissions in surrounding areas were essential to improve air quality in Beijing. The combination of PMF with footprint results revealed that the secondary source was mainly associated with southern footprints. The northern footprint was characterized by a high dust source contribution (11 %) while industrial sources increased with the eastern footprint. The results demonstrated the power of combining receptor model-based source apportionment with other models in understanding the formation of haze episodes and to identify specific sources from different source regions affecting air quality in Beijing.

Yue Liu et al.
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Status: final response (author comments only)
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Yue Liu et al.
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Publications Copernicus
Short summary
This study is part of the UK-China APHH campaign. To identify both source types and source regions at the same time, this study developed a combined method including receptor model, footprint model, and air quality model for the first time to investigate sources of PM2.5 during haze episodes in Beijing. It is an expansion of the application of receptor model and is helpful for formulating effective control strategies to improve air quality in this region.
This study is part of the UK-China APHH campaign. To identify both source types and source...