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Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Discussion papers
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 04 Dec 2018

Research article | 04 Dec 2018

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

Ozone trend profiles in the stratosphere: combining ground-based data over Central Europe to consider uncertainties

Leonie Bernet1,2, Thomas von Clarmann3, Sophie Godin-Beekmann4, Gérard Ancellet4, Eliane Maillard Barras5, René Stübi5, Wolfgang Steinbrecht6, Niklaus Kämpfer1,2, and Klemens Hocke1,2 Leonie Bernet et al.
  • 1Institute of Applied Physics, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
  • 2Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
  • 3Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe, Germany
  • 4Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Guyancourt, France
  • 5MeteoSwiss, Payerne, Switzerland
  • 6Deutscher Wetterdienst, Hohenpeissenberg, Germany

Abstract. Observing stratospheric ozone is essential to assess if the Montreal Protocol has succeeded to save the ozone layer by banning ozone depleting substances. Recent studies have reported positive trends indicating that ozone is recovering in the upper stratosphere at mid-latitudes, but the trend magnitudes differ and uncertainties are still high. Trends and their uncertainties are influenced by factors such as instrumental drifts, sampling patterns, discontinuities, biases, or short-term anomalies that all might mask a potential ozone recovery. The present study investigates how anomalies, temporal measurement sampling rates and trend period lengths influence resulting trends. We present an approach for handling suspicious anomalies in trend estimations to improve the derived trend profiles. The approach was applied to data from a Ground-based Millimetre-wave Ozone Spectrometer (GROMOS) located in Bern, Switzerland. We compare our improved GROMOS trend estimate with results from other ground stations (lidars, ozonesondes, and microwave radiometers) in Central Europe. The data indicate positive trends of 1 to 3 % per decade at an altitude of about 40 km (3 hPa), providing a confirmation of ozone recovery in the upper stratosphere in agreement to satellite observations. At lower altitudes, the ground station data show inconsistent trend results, which emphasize the importance of ongoing research on lower stratospheric ozone trends. Our presented method of a combined analysis of ground station data provides a useful approach to recognize and to reduce uncertainties in stratospheric ozone trends by considering anomalies in the trend estimation. We conclude that stratospheric trend estimations still need improvement and that our approach provides a tool that can also be useful for other data sets.

Leonie Bernet et al.
Interactive discussion
Status: final response (author comments only)
Status: final response (author comments only)
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
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Leonie Bernet et al.
Leonie Bernet et al.
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Publications Copernicus
Short summary
After the severe ozone depletion, upper stratospheric ozone has started to recover in recent years. However, stratospheric ozone trends from various data sets show still differences. To partly explain such differences, we investigate how the trends are affected by different factors, for example anomalies in the data. We show how trend estimates can be improved by considering such anomalies and present updated stratospheric ozone trends from ground data measured in Central Europe.
After the severe ozone depletion, upper stratospheric ozone has started to recover in recent...