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Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-1206
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-1206
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 03 Dec 2018

Research article | 03 Dec 2018

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

Soil-atmosphere exchange of carbonyl sulfide in Mediterranean citrus orchard

Fulin Yang1, Rafat Qubaja1, Fyodor Tatarinov1, Rafael Stern1, and Dan Yakir1,* Fulin Yang et al.
  • 1Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
  • *present address: College of Animal Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China

Abstract. Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is used as a as a tracer of CO2 exchange at the ecosystem and larger scales. The robustness of this approach depends on knowledge of the soil contribution to the ecosystem fluxes, which is uncertain at present. We assessed the spatial and temporal variations of soil COS and CO2 fluxes in the Mediterranean citrus orchard combining surface flux chambers and soil concentration gradients. The spatial heterogeneity in soil COS exchange indicated net uptake below and between trees of up to −4.6pmolm−2s−1, and net emission in exposed soil between rows, of up to +2.6pmolm−2s−1, with weighted mean uptake values of −1.10±0.10pmolm−2s−1. Soil COS concentrations decreased with soil depth from atmospheric levels of ~450 to ~100 ppt at 20cm depth, while CO2 concentrations increased from ~400 to ~5000ppm. COS flux estimates from the soil concentration gradients were, on average, −1.02±0.26pmolm−2s−1, consistent with the chamber measurements. A soil COS flux algorithm driven by soil moisture and temperature (5cm depth) and distance from the nearest tree, could explain 75% of variance in soil COS flux. Soil relative uptake, the normalized ratio of COS to CO2 fluxes was, on average −0.37 and showed a general exponential response to soil temperature. The results indicated that soil COS fluxes at our study site were dominated by uptake, with relatively small net fluxes compared to both soil respiration and reported canopy COS fluxes. Such result should facilitate the application of COS as a powerful tracer of ecosystem CO2 exchange.

Fulin Yang et al.
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Fulin Yang et al.
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Short summary
The contribution of soil carbonyl sulfate (COS) flux is probably the major limitation to the application of COS as a novel tracer of canopy scale CO2 uptake. We provide new, field-based high-resolution results on the spatial and temporal variations of soil COS flux, its relationships to CO2 exchange, and the key factors influencing it. We furthermore provide the only study, to our knowledge, that validate the increasingly used surface dynamic chamber approach with soil concentration profiles.
The contribution of soil carbonyl sulfate (COS) flux is probably the major limitation to the...
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