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© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 03 Dec 2018

Research article | 03 Dec 2018

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This discussion paper is a preprint. A revision of the manuscript was accepted for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

The influence of spatiality on shipping emissions, air quality and potential human exposure in Yangtze River Delta/Shanghai, China

Junlan Feng1, Yan Zhang1,2,3, Shanshan Li1, Jingbo Mao1, Allison P. Patton4, Yuyan Zhou1, Weichun Ma1,3, Cong Liu5, Haidong Kan5, Cheng Huang6, Jingyu An6, Li Li6, Yin Shen7, Qingyan Fu7, Xinning Wang7, Juan Liu7, Shuxiao Wang8, Dian Ding8, Jie Cheng9, Wangqi Ge9, Hong Zhu9, and Katherine Walker4 Junlan Feng et al.
  • 1Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention (LAP3), Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
  • 2Shanghai Academy of Environmental Sciences, Shanghai 200233, China
  • 3Shanghai Institute of Eco-Chongming (SIEC), Shanghai 200062, China
  • 4Health Effects Institute, 75 Federal Street, Suite 1400, Boston, MA 02110-1817, USA
  • 5Public Health School, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
  • 6Shanghai Academy of Environmental Science, Shanghai 200233, China
  • 7Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center, Shanghai 200030, China
  • 8State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
  • 9Shanghai Urban-rural Construction and Transportation Development Research Institute, Shanghai 200032, China

Abstract. The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and the megacity of Shanghai are host to one of the busiest port clusters in the world, the region also suffers from high levels of air pollution. The goal of this study was to estimate the contributions of shipping to emissions, air quality, and population exposure and characterize their dependence on the geographic spatiality of ship lanes from the regional scale to city scale for 2015. The WRF-CMAQ model was used to simulate the influence of coastal and inland-water shipping, in port emissions, shipping-related cargo transport on air quality and, population-weighted concentrations, a measure of human exposure. Our results showed that the impact of shipping on air quality in the YRD was attributable primarily to shipping emissions within 12 NM of shore, but emissions coming from the coastal area of 24 to 96 NM still contributed substantially to ship-related PM2.5 concentrations in YRD. The overall contribution of ships to PM2.5 concentration in YRD could reach to 4.62 μg/m3 in summer when monsoon winds transport shipping emissions onshore. In Shanghai city, inland-water going ships were major contributors (40–80 %) to the shipping impact on urban air quality. Given the proximity of inland-water ships to urban populations of Shanghai, the emissions of inland-water ships contributed more to population-weighted concentrations. These research results provide scientific evidence to inform policies for controlling future shipping emissions; in particular, stricter standards could be considered for the ships on inland rivers and other waterways close to residential regions.

Junlan Feng et al.
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Junlan Feng et al.
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Short summary
This study aims to estimate the emissions, air quality, and population exposure impacts of shipping in 2015 prior to the implementation of the DECAs. It showed that ship emissions within 12 nautical miles (NM) could account for over 55 % of the ships' impact on air pollution in the YRD in summer season. Ships entering the Yangtze River and other inland waterways of Shanghai contribute 40–80 % of the ship related air pollution and population exposure,which have an important implications for policy.
This study aims to estimate the emissions, air quality, and population exposure impacts of...