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© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 09 Jan 2019

Research article | 09 Jan 2019

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This discussion paper is a preprint. A revision of the manuscript is under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

Emissions of CFCs, HCFCs and HFCs from India

Daniel Say1, Anita L. Ganesan2, Mark F. Lunt3, Matthew Rigby1, Simon O'Doherty1, Chris Harth4, Alistair J. Manning5, Paul B. Krummel6, and Stephane Bauguitte7 Daniel Say et al.
  • 1School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TS, UK
  • 2School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1SS, UK
  • 3School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JW, UK
  • 4Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, USA
  • 5Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, EX1 3PB, UK
  • 6Climate Science Centre, CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Aspendale, Australia
  • 7Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements, Cranfield University, MK43 0AL, UK

Abstract. As the second most populous country and third fastest growing economy, India has emerged as a global economic power. As such, its emissions of greenhouse and ozone-depleting gases are of global significance. However, unlike neighbouring China, the Indian sub-continent is very poorly monitored by existing measurement networks. Of the greenhouse/ozone-depleting gases, India's emissions of synthetic halocarbons (here defined as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)) are not well-known. Previous measurements from the region have been obtained at observatories many hundreds of miles from source regions, or at high altitudes, limiting their value for the estimation of regional emission rates. Given the projected rapid growth in demand for refrigerants in India, emission estimates of these halocarbons are urgently needed, to provide a benchmark against which future changes can be evaluated. In this study, we report the first atmospheric-measurement derived emissions of the ozone-depleting CFCs and HCFCs, and potent greenhouse gas HFCs from India. Air samples were collected at low-altitude during a 2-month aircraft campaign between June and July 2016. Emissions were derived from measurements of these samples using an inverse modelling framework and evaluated to assess India's progress in phasing out ozone-depleting substances (ODS) under the Montreal Protocol. Our CFC estimates show that India contributed 52 (26–83) Tg CO2eq yr−1, which were 7 (4–12) % of global emissions in 2016. HCFC-22 emissions at 7.8 (6.0–9.9) Gg yr−1 were of similar magnitude to emissions of HFC-134a (8.2 (6.1–10.7) Gg yr−1), suggesting that India used a range of HCFC and HFC refrigerants in 2016. We estimated India's HFC-23 emissions to be 1.2 (0.9–1.5) Gg yr−1 and our results are consistent with resumed venting of HFC-23 by HCFC-22 manufacturers following the discontinuation of funding for abatement under the Clean Development Mechanism. We report small emissions of HFC-32 and HFC-143a and provide evidence that HFC-32 emissions were primarily due to fugitive emissions during manufacturing processes. Lack of significant correlation among HFC species and the small emissions derived for HFC-32 and HFC-143a indicate that in 2016, India's use of refrigerant blends R-410A, R-404A and R-507A was limited, despite extensive consumption elsewhere in the world.

Daniel Say et al.
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Status: final response (author comments only)
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Daniel Say et al.
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Publications Copernicus
Short summary
Despite its emergence as a global economic power, very little detailed information exists regarding India's emissions of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). We report atmospheric measurements of these gases from above India, and use them to estimate India's emissions. Our results are consistent with the emissions profile of an Article 5 country, with large emissions of HCFCs and HFCs but little evidence for widespread CFC consumption.
Despite its emergence as a global economic power, very little detailed information exists...