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Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-1086
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-1086
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 13 Dec 2018

Research article | 13 Dec 2018

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).

Climate Impact of Finnish Air Pollutants and Greenhouse Gases using Multiple Emission Metrics

Kaarle J. Kupiainen1, Borgar Aamaas2, Mikko Savolahti1, Niko Karvosenoja1, and Ville-Veikko Paunu1 Kaarle J. Kupiainen et al.
  • 1Finnish Environment Institute, Mechelininkatu 34a, P.O. Box 140, 00251 Helsinki, Finland
  • 2CICERO Center for International Climate Research, PB 1129 Blindern, 0318 Oslo, Norway

Abstract. We present a case study where emission metric values from different studies are applied to estimate global and Arctic temperature impacts of emissions from a Northern European country. This study assesses the climate impact of Finnish air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions in 2000–2010 as well as future emissions until 2030. The pollutants included are SO2, NOX, NH3, NMVOC, BC, OC and CO as well as CO2, CH4 and N2O, and our study is the first one for Finland to include all of them in one coherent dataset. These pollutants have different atmospheric lifetimes and influence the climate differently; hence, we look at different climate metrics and time horizons. The study uses the Global Warming Potential (GWP), the Global Temperature change Potential (GTP) and the Regional Temperature change Potential (RTP) with different time scales for estimating the climate impacts by species and sectors globally and in the Arctic. We compare the climate impacts of emissions occurring in winter and summer. This assessment is an example of how the climate impact of emissions from small countries and sources can be estimated, as it is challenging to use climate models to study the climate effect of national policies in a multi-pollutant situation. Our methods are applicable to other countries and regions and present a practical tool to analyse the climate impacts in multiple dimensions, such as assessing different sectors and mitigation measures. While our study focuses on short-lived climate forcers, we find that the CO2 emissions have the most significant climate impact, and the significance increases with longer time horizons. In the short term, emissions of especially CH4 and BC played an important role as well. The warming impact of BC emissions is enhanced during winter. There can be relatively large differences between results from studies using different metrics, which can partly be explained by different study setup and inherent uncertainty.

Kaarle J. Kupiainen et al.
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Short summary
We estimate global and Arctic temperature impacts of air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions from a Northern European country, Finland, using different climate metrics. This is an example of how the climate impact of emissions from small countries and sources can be evaluated, which is challenging with climate models. We find that the CO2 emissions have the most significant climate impact that increases with longer time horizons. In the short term, emissions of CH4 and BC are also important.
We estimate global and Arctic temperature impacts of air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions...
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