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Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2017-907
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Research article
08 Nov 2017
Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).
Identification of secondary aerosol precursors emitted by an aircraft turbofan
Dogushan Kilic1, Imad El Haddad1, Benjamin T. Brem2,5, Emily Bruns1, Carlo Bozetti1, Joel Corbin1, Lukas Durdina2,5, Ru-Jin Huang1, Jianhui Jiang1, Felix Klein1, Avi Lavi4, Simone M. Pieber1, Theo Rindlisbacher3, Yinon Rudich4, Jay G. Slowik1, Jing Wang2,5, Urs Baltensperger1, and Andre S. H. Prévôt1 1Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI, 5400, Switzerland
2Laboratory for Advanced Analytical Technologies, Empa, Dübendorf, 8600, Switzerland
3Federal Office of Civil Aviation, Bern, 3003, Switzerland
4Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science - Rehovot – Israel
5Institute of Environmental Engineering, ETH Zurich, Zurich, 8093, Switzerland
Abstract. Oxidative processing of aircraft turbine-engine exhaust was studied using a potential aerosol mass (PAM) chamber at different engine loads corresponding to typical flight operations. Measurements were conducted at an engine test cell. Organic gases (OGs) and particle emissions pre/post PAM were measured. A suite of instruments, including a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) for OGs, a multi-gas analyzer for CO, CO2, NOX, and an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) for non-refractory particulate matter (NR-PM1) were used. Total aerosol mass was dominated by secondary aerosol formation, which was approximately two orders of magnitude higher than the primary aerosol. The chemical composition of both gaseous and particle emissions were also monitored at different engine loads and were thrust dependent. At idling load (thrust 2.5–7 %), more than 90 % of the secondary particle mass was organic and could be explained by the oxidation of gaseous aromatic species/ OGs; e.g. benzene, toluene, xylenes, tri-, tetra-, and pentamethyl-benzene and naphthalene. The oxygenated-aromatics, e.g. phenol, furans, were also included in this aromatic fraction and their oxidation could alone explain up to 25 % of the secondary organic particle mass at idling loads. The organic fraction decreased with thrust level, while the inorganic fraction increased. At an approximated cruise load sulfates comprised 85 % of the total secondary particle mass.

Citation: Kilic, D., El Haddad, I., Brem, B. T., Bruns, E., Bozetti, C., Corbin, J., Durdina, L., Huang, R.-J., Jiang, J., Klein, F., Lavi, A., Pieber, S. M., Rindlisbacher, T., Rudich, Y., Slowik, J. G., Wang, J., Baltensperger, U., and Prévôt, A. S. H.: Identification of secondary aerosol precursors emitted by an aircraft turbofan, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2017-907, in review, 2017.
Dogushan Kilic et al.
Dogushan Kilic et al.
Dogushan Kilic et al.

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Short summary
We study primary emissions and secondary aerosol (SA) from an aircraft turbofan. By monitoring the chemical composition of both gaseous and particulate emissions at different engine loads, we explained SA formed in an oxidation flow reactor by the oxidation of gaseous species. At idle, more than 90 % of the secondary particle mass was organic and could be explained by the oxidation of gaseous aromatic species while at an approximated cruise load sulfates comprised 85 % of the total SA.
We study primary emissions and secondary aerosol (SA) from an aircraft turbofan. By monitoring...
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