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Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Research article
28 Nov 2017
Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).
Global radiative effects of solid fuel cookstove aerosol emissions
Yaoxian Huang1, Nadine Unger2, Trude Storelvmo3, Kandice Harper1, Yiqi Zheng3, and Chris Heyes4 1School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
2College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, EX4 4QE, UK
3Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
4International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria
Abstract. We apply the NCAR CAM5-Chem global aerosol–climate model to quantify the net global radiative effects of black and organic carbon aerosols from global and Indian solid fuel cookstove emissions for the year 2010. Our updated assessment accounts for the direct radiative effects, changes to cloud albedo and lifetime (aerosol indirect effect, AIE), impacts on clouds via the vertical temperature profile (semi-direct effect, SDE), and changes in the surface albedo of snow and ice (surface albedo effect). In addition, we provide the first estimate of household solid fuel black carbon emission effects on ice clouds. Anthropogenic emissions are from the IIASA GAINS ECLIPSE V5a inventory. A global dataset of black carbon (BC) and organic aerosol (OA) measurements from surface sites and aerosol optical depth (AOD) from AERONET is used to evaluate the model skill. Compared with observations, the model successfully reproduces the spatial patterns of atmospheric BC and OA concentrations, and agrees with measurements to within a factor of 2. Globally, the simulated AOD agrees well with observations, with normalized mean bias close to zero. However, the model tends to underestimate AOD over India and China by ~ 19 % but overestimate it over Africa by ~ 25 %. Without BC serving as ice nuclei (IN), global and Indian solid fuel cookstove aerosol emissions have a net cooling impact on global climate of −141 ± 4 mW m−2 and −12 ± 4 mW m−2, respectively. The net radiative impacts are dominated by the AIE and SDE mechanisms, which originate from enhanced cloud condensation nuclei concentrations for the formation of liquid and mixed-phase clouds, and a suppression of convective transport of water vapor from the lower troposphere to the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere that in turn leads to reduced ice cloud formation. When BC is allowed to behave as a source of IN, the net global climate impacts of the global and Indian solid fuel cookstove emissions range from −260 to +135 mW m−2 and −33 to +24 mW m−2, with globally averaged values −51 ± 210 and 0.3 ± 29 mW m−2 respectively. The uncertainty range is calculated from sensitivity simulations that alter the maximum freezing efficiency of BC across a plausible range: 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1. BC–ice cloud interactions lead to substantial increases in high cloud (< 500 hPa) fractions. Thus, the net sign of the impacts of carbonaceous aerosols from solid fuel cookstoves on global climate (warming or cooling) remains ambiguous until improved constraints on BC interactions with mixed-phase and ice clouds are available.

Citation: Huang, Y., Unger, N., Storelvmo, T., Harper, K., Zheng, Y., and Heyes, C.: Global radiative effects of solid fuel cookstove aerosol emissions, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,, in review, 2017.
Yaoxian Huang et al.
Yaoxian Huang et al.
Yaoxian Huang et al.


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