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Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2017-747
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Research article
12 Oct 2017
Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).
Revisiting the contribution of land transport and shipping emissions to tropospheric ozone
Mariano Mertens1, Volker Grewe1,a, Vanessa S. Rieger1,a, and Patrick Jöckel1 1Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany
aalso at: Delft University of Technology, Aerospace Engineering, Section Aircraft Noise and Climate Effects, Delft, the Netherlands
Abstract. We quantify the contribution of land transport and shipping emissions to tropospheric ozone for the first time with a chemistry-climate model including an advanced tagging method, which considers not only the emissions of NOx (NO and NO2), CO or non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) separately but the competing effects of all relevant ozone precursors. For summer conditions a contribution of land transport emissions to ground level ozone of up to 18 % in North America and South Europe is estimated, which corresponds to 12 nmol mol−1 and 10 nmol mol−1, respectively. The simulation results indicate a contribution of shipping emissions to ground level ozone during summer in the order of up to 30 % in the Northern Pacific (up to 12 nmol mol−1) and 20 % in the Northern Atlantic (12 nmol mol−1). To put these estimates in the context of literature values, we review previous studies. Most of them used the perturbation approach, in which the results from two simulations, one with all emissions and one with changed emissions for the source of interest, are compared. The comparison shows that the results strongly depend on the chosen methodology (tagging or perturbation method) and on the strength of the perturbation. A more in-depth analysis for the land transport emissions reveals that the two approaches give different results particularly in regions with large emissions (up to a factor of four for Europe). With respect to the contribution of land transport and ship traffic emissions to the tropospheric ozone burden we quantified values of 8 % and 6 % for the land transport and shipping emissions, respectively. Overall, the emissions from land transport contribute to around 20 % of the net ozone production near the source regions, while shipping emissions contribute up to 52 % to the net ozone production in the Northern Pacific. Our estimates of the radiative ozone forcing due to emissions of land transport and shipping emissions are 92 mW m−2 and 62 mW m−2, respectively. Again these results are larger by a factor of 2–3 compared to previous studies using the perturbation approach, but largely agree with previous studies which investigated the difference between the tagging and the perturbation method. Overall our results highlight the importance of differing between the perturbation and the tagging approach, as they answer two different questions. We argue that only the tagging approach can estimate the contribution of emissions, while only the perturbation approach investigates the effect of an emission change. To effectively asses mitigation options both approaches should be combined.

Citation: Mertens, M., Grewe, V., Rieger, V. S., and Jöckel, P.: Revisiting the contribution of land transport and shipping emissions to tropospheric ozone, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2017-747, in review, 2017.
Mariano Mertens et al.
Mariano Mertens et al.
Mariano Mertens et al.

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Short summary
We quantified the contribution of land transport and shipping emissions to tropospheric ozone using a global chemistry-climate model. Our results indicate a contributions to ground-level ozone of land transport emissions of up to 18 % in North America and Southern Europe as well as a contribution of shipping emissions of up to 30 % in the Pacific. Our estimates of the radiative ozone forcing due to emissions of land transport and shipping emissions are 92 mW m−2 and 62 mW&thnsp;m−2, respectively.
We quantified the contribution of land transport and shipping emissions to tropospheric ozone...
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