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Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2017-608
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Research article
07 Sep 2017
Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).
Chemical characterization of fine particulate matter emitted by peat fires in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, during the 2015 El Niño
Thilina Jayarathne1, Chelsea E. Stockwell2, Ashley A. Gilbert1, Kaitlyn Daugherty1, Mark A. Cochrane3, Kevin C. Ryan4, Erianto I. Putra3,5, Bambang H. Saharjo5, Ati D. Nurhayati5, Israr Albar5,a, Robert J. Yokelson6, and Elizabeth A. Stone1,7 1Department of Chemistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
2Chemical Science Division, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, 80305, USA
3South Dakota State University, Geospatial Science Center of Excellence, Brookings, 57006, USA
4FireTree Wildland Fire Sciences, L.L.C., Missoula, 59801, USA
5Bogor Agricultural University, Faculty of Forestry, Bogor, 16680, ID
6University of Montana, Department of Chemistry, Missoula, 59812, USA
7Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
anow at: Climate Change Division, Ministry of Environmental and Forestry, Jakarta 10270, ID
Abstract. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was collected in situ from peat smoke during the 2015 El Niño peat fire episode in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Twenty-one PM samples were collected from 18 peat fire plumes that were primarily smoldering with modified combustion efficiency (MCE) values of 0.725–0.833. PM emissions were determined and chemically characterized for elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble OC, water-soluble ions, metals, and organic species. Fuel-based PM2.5 mass emission factors (EF) ranged from 6.0–29.6 g kg−1 with an average of 17.3 ± 6.0 g kg−1. EC was detected only in 15 plumes and comprised ~ 1 % of PM mass. Together, OC (72 %), EC (1 %), water-soluble ions (1 %) and metal oxides (0.1 %) comprised 74 ± 11 % of gravimetrically-measured PM mass. Assuming that the remaining mass is due to elements that form organic matter (OM; i.e. elements O, H, N) an OM to OC conversion factor of 1.26 was estimated by linear regression. Overall, chemical speciation revealed the following characteristics of peat burning emissions: high OC mass fractions (72 %), primarily water-insoluble OC (84 ± 11 % C), low EC mass fractions (1 %), vanillic to syringic acid ratios of 1.9, and relatively high n-alkane contributions to OC (6.2 % C) with a carbon preference index of 1.2–1.6. Comparison to laboratory studies of peat combustion revealed similarities in the relative composition of PM, but greater differences in the absolute EF values. The EF developed herein, combined with estimates of the mass of peat burned, are used to estimate that 3.2–11 Tg of PM2.5 was emitted to atmosphere during the 2015 El Niño peatland fire event in Indonesia. Combined with gas-phase measurements of CO2, CO, CH4 and VOC from Stockwell et al. (2016), it is determined that OC and EC account for 2.1 % and 0.04 % of total carbon emissions, respectively. These in situ EFs can be used to improve the accuracy of the representation of Indonesian peat burning in emission inventories and receptor-based models.

Citation: Jayarathne, T., Stockwell, C. E., Gilbert, A. A., Daugherty, K., Cochrane, M. A., Ryan, K. C., Putra, E. I., Saharjo, B. H., Nurhayati, A. D., Albar, I., Yokelson, R. J., and Stone, E. A.: Chemical characterization of fine particulate matter emitted by peat fires in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, during the 2015 El Niño, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2017-608, in review, 2017.
Thilina Jayarathne et al.
Thilina Jayarathne et al.
Thilina Jayarathne et al.

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Short summary
Fine particulate matter (PM,sub>2.5) emissions from Indonesian peat burning were measured in situ. Fuel-based emission factors from 6.0–29.6 gPM kg−1. Detailed chemical analysis revealed high levels of organic carbon that was primarily water insoluble, little to no detectable elemental carbon, and alkane contributions to organic carbon in the range of 6 %. These data were used to estimate that 3.2–11 Tg of PM2.5 were emitted by the 2015 peat burning episodes in Indonesia.
Fine particulate matter (PM,sub2.5) emissions from Indonesian peat burning were measured in...
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