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Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2017-542
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Research article
13 Jun 2017
Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).
Origin of elemental carbon in snow from Western Siberia and northwestern European Russia during winter–spring 2014, 2015 and 2016
Nikolaos Evangeliou1, Vladimir P. Shevchenko2, Karl Espen Yttri1, Sabine Eckhardt1, Espen Sollum1, Oleg S. Pokrovsky3,4, Vasily O. Kobelev5, Vladimir B. Korobov6, Andrey A. Lobanov5, Dina P. Starodymova2, Sergey N. Vorobiev7, Rona L. Thompson1, and Andreas Stohl1 1NILU – Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Department of Atmospheric and Climate Research (ATMOS), Kjeller, Norway
2Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nakhimovsky prospect 36, 117997 Moscow, Russia
3Geosciences Environment Toulouse, UMR 5563 CNRS, University of Toulouse, 14 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400, Toulouse, France
4N. Laverov Federal Center for Integrated Arctic Research, Russian Academy of Science, Sadovaya street, 3, 163000, Arkhangelsk, Russia
5Arctic Research Center of the Yamalo-Nenets autonomous district, Vos'moy proezd, NZIA building, 629730, Nadym, Yamalo-Nenets autonomous district, Russia
6North-Western Brunch of Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Naberezhnaya Severnoy Dviny 112/3, 163061, Arkhangelsk, Russia
7BIO-GEO-CLIM Laboratory, Tomsk State University, 36 Prospect Lenina, 634050, Tomsk, Russia
Abstract. Short–lived climate forcers have been proven important both for the climate and human health. In particular, black carbon (BC) is an important climate forcer both as an aerosol and when deposited on snow and ice surface, because of its strong light absorption. This paper presents measurements of elemental carbon (EC; a measurement-based definition of BC) in snow collected from Western Siberia and northwestern European Russia during 2014, 2015 and 2016. The Russian Arctic is of great interest to the scientific community due to the large uncertainty of emission sources there. We have determined the major contributing sources of BC in snow in Western Siberia and northwestern European Russia using a Lagrangian atmospheric transport model. For the first time, we use a recently developed feature that calculates deposition in backwards (so-called retroplume) simulations allowing estimation of the specific locations of sources that contribute to the deposited mass.

EC was found in higher levels compared to previously reported concentrations and it was highly variable depending on the sampling location. Modelled BC was in good agreement (R = 0.53–0.83) with measured EC. However, a systematic region–specific model underestimation was found. For EC sampled in northwestern European Russia the underestimation by the model was smaller (> &munus;100 %). In this region, the major sources were transportation activities and domestic combustion in Finland. When sampling shifted to Western Siberia, the model underestimation was more significant (< −100 %). There, the sources included emissions from gas flaring as a major contributor to snow BC. The accuracy of the model calculations was also evaluated using two independent datasets of BC measurements in snow covering the entire Arctic. The model reproduced snow BC concentrations quite accurately, although small discrepancies occurred mainly for samples collected in springtime. Nevertheless, EC concentrations in snow presented here are about 20 % lower than previously reported ones in Western Siberia and northwestern European Russia.


Citation: Evangeliou, N., Shevchenko, V. P., Yttri, K. E., Eckhardt, S., Sollum, E., Pokrovsky, O. S., Kobelev, V. O., Korobov, V. B., Lobanov, A. A., Starodymova, D. P., Vorobiev, S. N., Thompson, R. L., and Stohl, A.: Origin of elemental carbon in snow from Western Siberia and northwestern European Russia during winter–spring 2014, 2015 and 2016, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2017-542, in review, 2017.
Nikolaos Evangeliou et al.
Nikolaos Evangeliou et al.
Nikolaos Evangeliou et al.

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Short summary
We present EC measurements from an uncertain region in terms of emissions (Russia). Its origin is quantified with a Lagrangian model that uses a recently developed feature, which allows backward estimation of the specific source locations that contribute to the deposited mass. A good agreement between modelled and measured concentrations was achieved (R = 0.5–0.8). A systematic underestimation was found in W. Siberia, at places where gas flaring was important implying miscalculation or sources.
We present EC measurements from an uncertain region in terms of emissions (Russia). Its origin...
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