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Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
07 Jul 2017
Review status
This discussion paper is under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).
Boreal forest BVOCs exchange: emissions versus in-canopy sinks
Putian Zhou1, Laurens Ganzeveld2, Ditte Taipale3,4, Üllar Rannik1, Pekka Rantala1, Matti P. Rissanen1, Dean Chen1, and Michael Boy1 1University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014, University of Helsinki, Finland
2Meteorology and Air Quality (MAQ), Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, Netherlands
3University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014, University of Helsinki, Finland
4Estonian University of Life Sciences, Department of Plant Physiology, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE-51014, Estonia
Abstract. A multi-layer gas dry deposition model has been developed and implemented into a 1-dimensional chemical transport model SOSAA (a model to Simulate the concentrations of Organic vapours, Sulphuric Acid and Aerosols) to calculate the dry deposition velocities for all the gas species included in the chemistry scheme. The new model was used to analyse in-canopy sources and sinks, including gas emissions, chemical production and loss, dry deposition and turbulent transport of 12 featured biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) or groups of BVOCs (e.g., monoterpenes, isoprene+2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO), sesquiterpenes and oxidation products of mono- and sesquiterpenes) in July, 2010 at the boreal forest site SMEAR II (Station to Measure Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations II). According to the significance of modeled monthly averaged individual source and sink terms inside the canopy, the selected BVOCs were classified into five categories: (1) most of emitted gases are transported out of the canopy (monoterpenes, isoprene+MBO), (2) chemical reactions remove a significant portion of emitted gases (sesquiterpenes), (3) bidirectional fluxes occur since both emission and dry deposition are crucial for the in-canopy concentration tendency (acetaldehyde, methanol, acetone, formaldehyde), (4) gases removed by deposition inside the canopy are compensated by the gases transported from above the canopy (acetol, pinic acid, β-caryophyllene's oxidation product BCSOZOH), and finally (5) the chemical production is comparable to the sink by deposition (isoprene's oxidation products ISOP34OOH and ISOP34NO3).

Most of the simulated sources and sinks were located above about 4 m for oxidation products and above about 8 m for emitted species except formaldehyde. In addition, soil deposition (including deposition onto understory vegetation) contributed 11–61 % to the overall in-canopy deposition. The emission sources peaked at about 14–16 m which was higher than 10 m where the maximum of dry deposition onto overstorey vegetation was located.

This study provided a method to enable the quantification of the exchange between atmosphere and biosphere for numerous BVOCs, which could be applied in large-scale models in future. With this more explicit canopy exchange modeling system this study analysed both the temporal and spatial variations of individual in-caonpy sources and sinks, as well as their combined effects on driving BVOCs exchange. Twelve featured BVOCs or BVOC groups were analyzed in this study, more compounds could also be investigated similarly by being classified into the five categories.

Citation: Zhou, P., Ganzeveld, L., Taipale, D., Rannik, Ü., Rantala, P., Rissanen, M. P., Chen, D., and Boy, M.: Boreal forest BVOCs exchange: emissions versus in-canopy sinks, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,, in review, 2017.
Putian Zhou et al.
Putian Zhou et al.
Putian Zhou et al.


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Short summary
In boreal forest, there exist a large amount of gaseous organic compounds named as biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Within the canopy, they can be emitted from vegetaion and soil, react with each other and other gases, be transported in the air and be removed on the vegetaion surface. We applied a numerical model to simulate these processes and found that these BVOCs can be divided into 5 categories according to the significance of their sources and sinks.
In boreal forest, there exist a large amount of gaseous organic compounds named as biogenic...