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Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2017-291
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
23 May 2017
Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. A revision of this manuscript was accepted for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) and is expected to appear here in due course.
Aerosol emission factors from traditional biomass cookstoves in India: Insights from field measurements
Apoorva Pandey1, Sameer Patel1, Shamsh Pervez2, Suresh Tiwari3, Gautam Yadama4,a, Judith C. Chow5, John G. Watson5, Pratim Biswas1, and Rajan K. Chakrabarty1 1Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA
2School of Studies in Chemistry, Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, Chhattisgarh 492010, India
3Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune, Maharashtra 411008, India
4Brown School of Social Work, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA
5Divison of Atmospheric Sciences, Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV 89512, USA
anow at: School of Social Work, Boston College, Boston, MA 02467, USA
Abstract. Residential solid biomass cookstoves are important sources of aerosol emissions in India. Cookstove emission rates are largely based on laboratory experiments conducted using the standard water-boiling test, but real-world emissions are often higher owing to different stove designs, fuels, and cooking methods. Constraining mass emission factors (EFs) for prevalent cookstoves is important because they serve as inputs to bottom-up emission inventories used to evaluate health and climate impacts. Real-world EFs were measured during winter, 2015, for a traditional cookstove (chulha) burning fuel-wood (FW), agricultural residue (AG) and dung (DG) from different regions of India. Average (±95 % confidence interval) EFs for FW, AG, and DG were: 1) PM2.5 mass: 6.8 (4.7–9.4) g kg−1, 7.1 (3.9–11.8) g kg−1, and 14.5 (7.5–25.3) g kg−1, respectively; 2) elemental carbon (EC): 0.6 (0.4–0.9) g kg−1, 1.0 (0.4–2.0) g kg−1, and 0.6 (0.3–1.3) g kg−1, respectively; and 3) Organic carbon (OC): 3.1 (2.0–4.6) g kg−1, 4.5 (2.3–8.0) g kg−1, and 8.2 (4.2–15.01) g kg−1, respectively. The mean (±95 % confidence interval) OC-to-EC mass ratios were 6.5 (4.5–9.1), 7.6 (4.4–12.2), and 12.7 (8.8–17.8), respectively, with OC and EC quantified by the IMPROVE_A thermal/optical reflectance protocol. These real-world EFs are higher than those from laboratory-based measurements. Combustion conditions have larger effects on EFs than the fuel-types. We also report the carbon mass fractions of our aerosol samples determined using the thermal-optical reflectance method. The mass fraction profiles are consistent between the three fuel categories, but markedly different from those reported in past literature.

Citation: Pandey, A., Patel, S., Pervez, S., Tiwari, S., Yadama, G., Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Biswas, P., and Chakrabarty, R. K.: Aerosol emission factors from traditional biomass cookstoves in India: Insights from field measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2017-291, in review, 2017.
Apoorva Pandey et al.
Interactive discussionStatus: closed
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
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RC1: 'Referee comment', Anonymous Referee #2, 21 Jun 2017 Printer-friendly Version 
 
RC2: 'Referee remarks on 'Aerosol emission factors from traditional biomass cookstoves in India: Insights from field measurements'', Anonymous Referee #1, 07 Jul 2017 Printer-friendly Version 
 
AC1: 'Response to reviewers', Apoorva Pandey, 25 Aug 2017 Printer-friendly Version Supplement 
Apoorva Pandey et al.
Apoorva Pandey et al.

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Short summary
This study presents real-world aerosol emission factors for traditional biomass cook-stoves in India. We aimed to use field observations to constrain mass emission factors for biomass cookstoves, because they serve as inputs to bottom-up emission inventories. Aerosol emissions were sampled from a traditional mud stove burning common biomass fuels in an Indian household. Measured particulate emission factors and their organic carbon content are higher than those from previous laboratory studies.
This study presents real-world aerosol emission factors for traditional biomass cook-stoves in...
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